60 terms

All Quiet on the Western Front: Chapters 7 - 12

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According to Paul, what change has happened to Himmelstoss and why>
Himmelstoss has finally come to understanding the horrors of the front and what the soldiers have gone though there, so he has become somewhat kinder to them.
A soldier needs two things for contentment, which are
good food and rest
Good food and rest show
that the war has turned soldiers into animals
For a soldier, what is the purpose of humor?
It keeps him from going mad.
What happened when Paul Bäumer and Albert Kropp encountered a poster?
Paul and Albert see a poster from a performance with a "lovely girl" on it. They tear away the male soldier in white trousers and keep the girl.
Why does the author write about the poster?
to show that Paul and Albert were ashamed of their filthiness in comparison to the man on the poster, to show that women are the opposite of war (they bring joy and happiness), and to foreshadow the meeting the men will very soon have with women in real life
What happened in the scene where the men met with the French girls?
On the side of the canal opposite to Paul's side, there are women. Three walk along the bank, and Paul likes the "slim little brunette." He, Albert Kropp, and Peter Leer get Tjaden drunk so they can sneak out at night with food for the girls. The men each come, to the house where the women pointed to, naked after swimming. (The men do not have swimsuits.) They each sleep with one of the girls, Peter Leer with blond. Early the next morning, they leave. Paul still cannot escape the war's terror that he hoped would result from that night. He wished to wake up young and free, but he only woke up with emptiness and unhappiness, because he did not feel young and free. They leave the women early the next morning and find Tjaden outside naked. This entire scene shows that one of the causalities of war is morality.
How long is Paul's pass home?
17 days: 14 for leave, 3 for travel
How is Paul treated by his father, friends, and the major?
father and friends: like a hero; major: like a lowly soldier
Why doesn't Paul enjoy his leave?
because people keep asking him about the war, and then he feels he must lie to hide its true horribleness (and people seem to want to hear stories of a hero, not a victim); his mother has cancer, and it is getting worse, so he does not want to worry her with his war terror; he feels like a stranger; he is bored
Whom does Mittlestaedt train as harshly as Himmelstoss?
Kantorek, an awful, lowly Territorial soldier (Paul loves and enjoys watching Kantorek suffer and get what he deserves)
What can kill a soldier who feels terror?
thinking
To whom is Paul speaking when he says, "May I never come back if he wasn't killed instantaneously?"
Franz Kemmerich's mother (this foreshadows that Paul will truly never come back)
Why does Paul repeatedly lie to his mother?
because he does not want her to worry about him, especially with her own problem, cancer
At the beginning of chapter 8, why does Paul connect with nature?
because she is lovable to him; she is his companion; she is calm and peaceful; she makes him happy; she is the opposite of war; she has no requirement of Paul; she offers free and always-available comfort
How is nature a motif throughout the book?
It is alive, welcoming, and free, among the war, misery, and death, and it is always living from the beginning of the book to the end of the book; a butterfly came across the men earlier
What does Paul observe about the Russian prisoners?
They "seem nervous and fearful," are big with beards, "look like meek, scolded St. Bernard dogs, and Paul Bäumer's camp is separated from the big Russian prison camp by a wire fence. He pities the men, and he starts to see "the enemy" rather as people who have families and loved ones.
What are two things that chapter 8 foreshadow?
One thing is how Paul will soon murder Gérard Duval, by saying that the Russian prisoners' lives are "obscure and guiltless," and saying "I percieve behind them only the suffering of the creature, the awful melancholy of life and the pitilessness of men." This is also how he will view Gérard in the near future. Another thing is how Paul will later on be starving due to his company's lack of food, by Paul seeing the Russians starving.
Why is Paul glad to return to the Front?
It is all he knows. Back at home, he is miserable, and at the Front are all of his comrades, his best friends. (They share an immutable, unconditional love and connection with one another.
What high-ranking person visits the Front in chapter 9?
The Kaiser, the German Emperor (the most powerful man in Germany), whom Paul and his friends say caused the war
What did the men in charge of supply do when the Kaiser visited them?
They lied to him about how well they were doing and about having enough supplies and ammunition to stay out of trouble. (They were not doing well and did not have enough supplies and ammunition.)
What was the men's conversation about the visit and about the war in chapter 9?
The men ask if Paul's leave was good, and he says, "in parts." He shows them his mother's potato-cakes. Kat tries some and says they are good, just as all of the food she makes. Paul feels like weeping, but holds it in. Kropp tells Paul he's been lucky to be on leave. Kropp says that the soldiers will be going to Russia, and Paul replies by saying that there is not much war in Russia. The soldiers do not end up going to Russia. Instead, they go up to the front line again.
While on patrol, what do the men see in the trees?
Dead men hanging in them, that have been blown out of their clothes by "trench mortars"; their limbs and heads are apart, scattered throughout the tress, and look like fruit
What is the allusion in the dead men in trees scene?
Adam and Eve- the Tree of Knowledge (naked people in both the story of Adam and Eve and the war book); symbol: what man has done with his knowledge: spent it and time on death, rather than goodness
Who is the Frenchman Paul kills?
Gérard Duval, a printer
Why does Gérard Duval affect Paul so deeply?
because he is the first person Paul has ever killed (Paul killed him by stabbing him 3 times) up-close (face to face), and Paul has to stay with him for 3 days, waiting until he dies (which is on the third day); he looked at the man's wallet and saw his wife and child (a young girl)
What did Paul see himself stab?
the abstraction, the idea of a man and not an actual man, although Paul did stab a real man
What stabs Paul?
all of the words he translates from Duval's letters from the dying man's wallet (Paul finally, truly sees "the enemy" as a man, a son, and brother, a father.)
How is it symbolic that Paul gets lost and confused on the battlefield in chapter 9?
It symbolizes his confusion about his life (spiritually/emotionally)
What does Paul resolve to do after the Frenchman dies?
to write to the man's wife and help her and the man's parents and the man's child; swears blindly that he means only to live for Duval's sake and the man's family; he feels he must be a printer during peace-time, to replace the dead printer; he says this shall never happen again
How does the Frenchman's picture become a "nail?"
it will make him remember this forever (allusion of Jesus' nails and Resurrection, because he was with Duval underground for 3 days)
What does Sergeant Ollerich do?
turns around with pride and scores his point after hearing someone cry out (he is a thoughtless sniper who takes pride in the accuracy of his shooting), heads the shooting list for the day with three unquestionable hits, then returns to the fire-step and cracks his rifle sharply and dry after searching for a target enemy to kill
What do Paul and Kropp say about Ollerich's shootings?
Paul says he would not do the same, and Kropp says him neither
While Paul cooks potato pancakes, what is Kat cooking?
two little, young, suckling pigs, peas, and cauliflower
Why is the meal in chapter 10 so important to the men?
it could be their last meal, and they do not care about their futures anyway
What does the men's meal they cook symbolize?
They risk their lives just for good food, because they have nothing to look forward to but the meal (a bomb hits the place they are making the meal in, and they take the time to save the food and run out, even though they could have died)
What animal do the men befriend?
a little, grey cat
Why do the men befriend the cat?
to feel like a family (and the cats made them feel at home and hungry
Who is also wounded with Paul is chapter 10?
Albert Kropp
How does Paul save his leg?
by keeping the doctor from chloroforming him and by maintaining his self-control without the chloroform, which keeps the doctor from cutting Paul's leg off without his permission
What does Paul use to bribe the Sergeant-major?
cigars
Why is Paul hesitant to get in bed on the hospital train?
he is filthy and has lice, while the sheets are snow-white
How does the presence of women change the men's behavior?
The women make them feel vulnerable and modest.
What does Paul fake in order to be put off the train with his friend?
a fever (Albert Kropp is the friend)
Why are the men angry at the nuns?
for praying at seven o'clock in the morning, while they are trying to sleep, and the men rarely get to experience quietness
Why is it ironic that the men are angry at the nuns?
noise is like war-bombs and cries-but the men doe not want to the women that, and they do not know at all of it
What is a shooting license, and who has one?
something that lets an injured man do whatever he wants to; Reinforcement-Reservist Josef Hamacher (for a crack in his head)
Who is Sister Libertine, and why is her name interesting?
a marvelous sister (nun at the Catholic hospital) who spreads good cheer through the whole wing, even when she can only be seen in the distance; libertine means a person without most moral or sexual restraints, and the person see these restraints as unnecessary or undesirable (also sounds like liberty, freedom) (a libertine does not follow common society behavior, and she is a nun)
What is the name of the place in the hospital where the terminal patients are put, and who comes back alive from it?
Dying Room/Dead Room/Death Room; Little Peter (he resists being taken there, but amazes his friends by being the first ever to return) (he returned 3 days late) (he was suffering from a lung wound) (allusion of Jesus' Resurrection and his disciple, Peter)
What is the Chief Surgeon a symbol of?
the abuse of power (he likes experimenting on flat feet, and ruins people's lives with his operations)
What does Lewandowski accomplish while in the hospital?
sleeping with his wife (he is 40 years old) (he has been in the Catholic hospital for 10 months from an abdominal wound) (he has not seen her in 2 years) (her name is Marja) (his wardmates keep watch during their affair)
What is the metaphor of the coins?
All of the men are but coins, worth nothing, can be replaces very easily, and are all the same.
What is the story of Detering in chapter 11?
He saw a cherry tree in a garden, and it reminded him of home, so the morning after the next, he was gone. He was caught by the field darmes, military police. He went toward Germany, instead of Holland, like many others, and that caused it. He was never heard from again, because he was shot and killed by his own side for abandoning the other soldiers. (If one leaves unpunished, they all will, so they kill Detering.)
What is the story of Berger in chapter 11?
He tries to end a dog's life, for the dog is a wounded messenger-dog, but while trying to help, Berger gets a wound in his pelvis. He is carried off, but one of the carriers gets a bullet in his leg while carrying him. (Berger is the most powerful soldier in the Second Company.)
Who inherits Müller's boots?
Paul (Müller is shot point-blank in the stomach, and Paul promises then that the boots will, after Paul, be Tjaden's) (this foreshadows Paul's death)
Why does Kat say, "Germany ought to be empty soon?"
because the men had given up hope that an end tp the war would ever come, and soldiers were dropping like flies
How does Kat die?
His shin gets smashed, and Paul carries him to an orderly, but on the way, Kat's head gets a splinter in it, and Paul does not notice until the orderly points out that Kat is dead. Paul is shocked, for he talked to him just ten minutes ago.
What is ironic about the report: "All quiet on the Western Front?"
(in October 1918) the day was quiet, because all of the soldiers had died (Paul from poisonous gas), and the report hinted that no one has individuality, so death was casual
Themes
war destroys men
individuality is extremely important
war does not allow mortality
the opposite of war is women, love, peace, quiet, mortality, spirituality, individuality, and nature
Motifs
nature
women
death
war
the boots