30 terms

ch 30 and 31 apush

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Treaty of Versailles
was created to solve problems made by World War I. Germany was forced to accept the treaty. It was composed of only four of the original points made by President Woodrow Wilson. The treaty punished Germany and did nothing to stop the threat of future wars. It maintained the pre-war power structure.
Espionage and Sedition Act
reflected current fear about Germans and antiwar Americans; Among the 1,900 prosecuted under these laws were antiwar Socialists and members of the radical union Industrial Workers of the World; were enacted during WWI to keep Americans united in favor of the war effort.
Industrial Workers of the World
Also known as "Wobblies," a more radical labor organization that was against war.
nineteenth amendment
gave women suffrage in 1920. Women were guaranteed the right to vote after a century of conflicts.
collective security
Described what the League of Nations should do. It said that the League of Nations was supposed to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all countries.
Zimmerman Note
Written by a German foreign secretary. He had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
14 points
were introduced by Wilson in 1918. It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose.
League of Nations
In 1919, after the war, Wilson proposed it in the 14th point of his peace plan. He envisioned it as an Assembly with seats for all nations and a special council for the great powers. The US voted not to join the League because in doing so, it would have taken away our self-determination, and Congress could not decide whether to go to war or not.
self-determination
The idea that all people can have independence and make up their own government. This was one of Wilson's fourteen points.
Lodge
was an outspoken senator from Massachusetts. He came from a distinguished lineage that dated back to the colonial times. He introduced the Literacy Test bill in 1896 to be taken by immigrants, but it was vetoed by Cleveland. The bill however was passed and enacted in 1917. Lodge also led a group of Republicans against the League of Nations. Lodge proposed amendments to the League Covenant but Wilson would not accept. We did not join the League.
Harding
He was easygoing and kind, and therefore one of the best liked men of his time. As a president, however, he had a weak. He won the 1920 election but he was unable to detect moral wrongs in his associates. He appointed "great minds" to office because he knew he lacked in intelligence, but a few of the men he appointed were morally lacking. He was called an "amiable ****,". He died in 1923 from a stroke.
Cox
He was the democrat nominee chosen to run for the presidency against Harding in the 1920 election. His vice-presidential running mate was Franklin Roosevelt.
Creel
Journalist who was responsible for selling America on WWI and was head of the Committee on Public Information. He was also responsible for selling the world on Wilsonian war aims.
volstead act
implemented the 18th Amendment. It established illegal alcohol at above .5%.
Sacco and Venzetti case
They were both convicted of murdering a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard in 1921. They were supported by Liberals and Radicals. The case lasted 6 years and resulted in execution based on weak evidence. Mainly because Americans were xenophobic (afraid of foreigners).
Ku Klux Klan
In the 1920s this group was very anti-foreign. It was against all groups which did not have a protestant background. They were most prevalent in the Midwest and the south. They eventually became less popular when Klan officials were caught embezzling money.
red scare
erupted in the early 1920's. The American public was scared that communism would come into the US. Left-winged supporters were suspected. This fear of communism helped businessman who used it to stop labor strikes.
Ford
he made assembly line production more efficient in his Rouge River plant near Detroit- a finished car would come out every 10 seconds. He helped to make car inexpensive so more Americans could buy them.
Mellon
was the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics. (Hamiltonian economics)
Palmer
Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter."
Scopes
was indicted for teaching evolution in Tennessee. His trial was watched all over the country. This trial represented the Fundamentalist vs. the Modernalist. In the outcome Scopes was only fined $100.00 dollars. While it seemed the Fundamentalists had won, the trial made them look bad.
Darrow
A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when he questioned Bryan about the Bible.
Hoover
He was the head of the Food Administration during World War I. He became the Secretary of Commerce and encouraged businesses to regulate themselves. Hoover was a Republican known for his integrity who won the election of 1928. He had to deal with the Great Crash of 1929, which caused the Great Depression. He signed the Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act. His belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.
conscription
involuntary enrollment in the service of a country. It is most often used in the specific sense of requiring citizens to serve in the armed forces.
schenck v. united states
a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I. Charles Schenck was the Secretary of the Socialist party and was responsible for printing, distributing, and mailing 15,000 leaflets to men eligible for the draft that advocated opposition to the draft. These leaflets contained statements such as; "Do not submit to intimidation", "Assert your rights", "If you do not assert and support your rights, you are helping to deny or disparage rights which it is the solemn duty of all citizens and residents of the United States to retain." Ultimately, the case served as the founding of the "clear and present danger" rule.
Al Capone
an American gangster who led a crime syndicate dedicated to smuggling and bootlegging of liquor and other illegal activities during the Prohibition Era of the 1920s and 1930s.
Lindbergh
an American aviator, author, inventor and explorer.
natavist
favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.[1] It may also include the re-establishment or perpetuation of such individuals or their culture.
the birth of a nation
a 1915 silent film directed by D. W. Griffith. Set during and after the American Civil War, the film was based on Thomas Dixon's The Clansman, a novel and play.
immigration quota act
limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, according to the Census of 1890.