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97 terms

Chapters 10, 11, and 12

Terms for pathophysiology at Gateway Community College
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Upper GI
infections of mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and duodenum
lower GI
infections of the small and large intestine, appendix, rectum, and anus
Peristalsis
the force that keeps the food bolus going down the tube
peritonitis
result of perforation of the digestive system and contents go into the abdomen
lacteal
transports materials that are unable to cross the walls of local capillaries to the lymph system
lymph system
________ __________ transports fats and lipids to the blood stream, which carries them to the liver for processing
sjogrens
autoimmune disorder with decreased oral fluid, creates less break down of food by the mouth
digestive enzymes
amylase in the salivary gland and digests starch, pepsin in the stomach and digests protein, hydrochloric acid,
gastrin
stimulates HCI secretion
intrinsic factor
mediates absorption of bit B12
duodenum
first 18 inches of the small intestine, breaks down food for absorption in the rest of the small intestine
enterokinase
activates pancreatic enzymes
cholecystokinin
stimulates gall bladder contraction and pncreatic secretion
secretin
stimulates secretion of pancreatic trypsin and chymotripsin
absorption
food is mostly absorbed in the small intestine but acohol is absorbed in the stomach, water and electrolytes in the colon
excretion
undigested food, various secretions excretory products of metabolism become feces
hematamesis, anemia
symptoms of a person with esophageal varices
pylori
bacteria that causes peptic ulcers and is able to survive in stomach by neutralizing acid with enzymes it secretes
bariatric surgery
procedudes that diminish the size or bypass the stomach, weight loss surgery
diverticula
pocket extending out of the intestine
polyps
growths on the inside of the intestine
stoma
artificial opening used for diseases such as cancer, crohns, ulcerative colitis
diarrhea
cholera, shigella, salmonella, botulinum, and ecolia are all organisms that cause _____________.
celiac sprue
autoimmune disorder that affects people of all ages, requires dietary restrictions of glutens
appendicitis
acute sudden fever, leukocytosis, abdominal pain
infectious peritonitis
rupture of the stomach, spread of infection from fallopian tubes, rupture of an abscess, infection of pre-existing ascites
sterile peritonitis
mediated by chemical irritation, acute pancreatitis due to a spill of pancreatic enzymes, rupture of gallbladder secondary to bile into peritoneum, postsurgical peritonitis caused by talc or surgical chemicals
hemorroids
varicosities of the anal and perianal region caused by increased pressure in the area, pregnancy, chronic constipation, or portal hypertension
kupffer cells
fixed liver phagocytes which scavenge for bacteria, blood cell fragments, ect.
hilus
point at which bile ducts exit from the liver and blood supply enters
dual blood
enters at hilus
portal vein
brings nutrient laden blood to the liver
hepatic artery
brings oxygenized blood to the liver
liver functions
excretory, bile it produces, metabolic- processing of food and metabolism of carbs, fats, and protein, storage- storing carbohydrates and lipids, synthetic- synthesis of all major plasma proteins except immunoglobins, detoxification- drugs, hormones, cytokins and metabolites
portal hypertension
caused by obstructed blood flow through the liver
anastomosis
veins connected by an opening due to surgery or hypertension
portal hypertension
undetoxified blood, missing liver metabolites, variscosities, splenomegaly, ascities, jaundice due to obstruction of bile ducts are caused by ________ ____________
liver pain
liver is loosely connected and easily transplanted, covered with Glissons capsule which has many nerves, congestion may cause dull and diffuse pain.
jaundice
disruption of bilirubin processing, produces brown urine, tumors of the head of liver may occlude bile duct
gallstones
caused from bile and can result in cholecystitis or obstruction
hepatitis
most prevalent liver disease in the world, type a and b have vaccines
cirrhosis
alcoholic kind is the fourth most common killer of men 40 to 60 years of age, produces enlarged liver
liver necrosis
caused by tylenol ingested in doses exceeding 15g
alcoholic liver disease
alcohol affects enzyme balance, fluidity and function of cell membrane, intracellular transport of organelles and metabolites, Produces fatty changes in liver cells.
pancreas
98% used for exocrine function, 2% for endocrine
pancreatic digestive enzymes
exocrine secretions amylase for starch, lipase for lipids, peptidases for protein, bicarbonate for stomach acid, proenzymes are inactive forms of enzymes, mucin
duodenum and vagus
release hormones to stimulate pancreatic production
pancreatic endocrine functions
insulin, glucagon, somatostatin
insulin
from beta cells and regulates the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, lowers blood sugar levels
glucagon
from alpha cells, stimulates liver to convert glycogen to glucose, raises blood sugar levels
somatostatin
enzyme that forms delta cells, an inhibiting hormone to maintain homeostasis
carcinoma of pancreas
difficult to detect early enough to effectively treat
pancreatic necrosis
state which causes release of pancreatic enzymes into the blood
autodigestion
premature activation of pancreatic enzymes causes destruction of the pancreatic tissue and creation of psuedocysts
pancreatitis
alcohol abuse induced state of the pancreas
type I
juvenile onset, require insulin the rest of their lives
type II
adult onset, diabetics may require insulin if the oral antidiabetics arent able to control blood sugars, Always know as type II diabetic per medicare ICD9
The urinary tract
comprised of kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and the urethra
primary function
formation and excretion of urine, ultrafiltration are the _____________ _____________ of the kidneys
secondary function
secreting renin, a hormone that raises blood pressure, erythropoietin, the growth factor that stimulates the production of RBC's is the ______________ ___________ of the kidneys
nephron
is the functional unit of the kidney, where urine is formed
1.25 million
number of functional units in each kidney
glomerulus and tubules
________ and the ______________ are the primary sections of the nephron
glomerulus
consists of specialized capillaries that are modified so taht they allow selective passage of fluids and sollutes from the blood into the lumen, tubules, of the nephron. 90% of fluid is returned to the body
tubules
proximal convoluted, descending limb, nephron loop, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule - site of resorbtion
bowmans capsule
urine production occurs when fluid and waste are squeezed out of the glomurular capillaries into the ____________
blood pressure
____________ ____________ is the force that squeezes the fluid and waste out of the blood going into the glomerulus
chronic
_________ blood pressure causes thickening of membranes due to hypertension and less effective filtering in the glomerulus
diabetes
______________ also causes thickening of membranes and AA compounds get caught in the membranes
proteinuria
loss of basement membrane permeability due to thickened membranes in the kidney, results in ____________ and indicates deteriorating renal function.
renin
_____________ helps regulate blood pressure
erythropoeitin
_____________ promotes production of b12
stones
kidney ______________ may be removed by lithotripsy or surgery
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
______________ or BPH affects the passage of urine in men with enlarged prostate
pyelonephritis
____________ is an infection of the renal pelvis
diabetes, multiple myoloma, lupis
___________, ____________, and _____________ are three well known causes of pathology of the basement membranes of the glomerulus from antigen-antibody complexes
glomerulusclerosis
__________ caused by atherosclerosis of the renal arteries and branches
tubular necrosis
___________ ____________ is the result of lack of oxygen and adverse actions of toxins or hypoperfusion of the kidneys
gout
________ is when uric acid is deposited in the joints causing pain and in the kidneys resulting in hyperuricemia
metabolic glomerulopathy
____________ _____________ or diabetes, thickended basement membrane, glomerulosclerotic, loss of permeability- proteinuria increased mesangial matrix, vascular changes, prone to infections
andrologist
_______ counter part of gynecologist, deal with infertility
urologist
_____________ deals with other male problems of the reproductive organs
urogenital pathologist
___________ ___________deals with diseases of the male reproductive system
infertility
invitro fertilization for females, no progress for treating males in treating ____________
testosterone
_________ is necessary for normal development, production controlled by pituitary gland, little is produced after birth until puberty, development of sex characteristics in males, necessary for fertility, stimulates development of prostate
leydig
_________ cells secrete testosterone
anterior pituitary
hormone production is directed by the _________ ____________ gland
chlamydia
______________ is the most common STD
treponema pallidum
___________ _____________ is the bacterial pathogen responsible for syphilis
chancre
___________ is the name for ulcers in the primary stage of syphilis
condyloma latum
_____________ ____________ is the name of the secondary stage rash that appears in syphilis
Tertiary stage
severe effects on the cardiovascular and nervous system are characteristics of the __________ _________ of syphilis
BPH
benign prostatic hyperplasia or _______ is enlarged prostate, hormonally induced, imbalance of male and female hormones, impedes urination, nodules are benign and can be shelled out.
prostate
_________ is the most common type of tumor in men
prostate cancer
_________ _________ is the most common cause of cancer in men
robotic surgery
__________ ___________ are very helpful because they can remove tumors without disrupting nerves
True
true or false, most of the venous return from the digestive system and spleen goes directly to the liver via the portal system