Civil War and Reconstuction Terms

Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slave owners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
14th Amendment
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
15th Amendment
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Klu Klux Klan
A secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremacy in the South after the Civil War.
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights, The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farm workers in return for a portion of their crops
"forty acres and a mule"
failed attempt to help freed blacks during reconstruction - had promised blacks forty acres of land and a mule to plow,
to accuse a public official of a crime or question the validity of public official's alleged misdemeanor
Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. They carried their belongings in carpetbags, and most intended to settle in the South and make money there. Part of the radical government, they passed much needed reforms.
white Southerner supporting Reconstruction policies after the Civil War usually for self-interest
Presidential Reconstruction
was the President's idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
Radical Reconstruction
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war, Provided for dividing states into military districts with military commanders to oversee voter registration that included adult African-American males for state conventions; state conventions to draft constitutions that provided for suffrage for black men; state legislatures to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
Election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither candidate had an electoral majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised ; Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. The decision of the winner came down to congress but no one knew which house should vote because the Senate was Republican an
States that seceded from the Union
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia
Why Lincoln went to war with the south
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union. ; showed slavery as a moral issue of the election
Fort Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
The union forces wanted to capture Vicksburg in order to control to Mississippi River. (Union) Gen. Grant surrounded Vicksburg and bombed it for a month. The people and Confederate soldiers starved until they surrendered.
Ordinances of Secession
southern states argues the Union was a "compact" that states had voluntarily entered and that they could voluntarily leave; the south concluded that secession was the only way to protect their institution of slavery
Union/Confederate Strategies
North= Anaconda Plan, Splits South in half with Mississippi River, Capture South's capital, Richmond Virginia.
South= Be on defense, careful military plan, conserve resources, and outlast the North
War goals of the South/North
North: take Richmond, take Mississippi River, blockade southern coastline, keep border states
South: take D.C., keep control of Mississippi River, and fight defensive war and let north get fatigued
Total War
all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Habeas Corpus
a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
Sherman's March through Georgia
Sherman decided to send a blocking force under George H. Thomas to stop Confederate moves northward. Breaking his lines of communication, he would fan out his army and set off for Savannah, Georgia, on a giant raid that became known as the march to the sea, carving a wide swath through the Georgia countryside on his way.
Appomattox Courthouse
the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Ulysses S. Grant
Union military commander who won victories when others had failed and defeated Lee, U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Robert E..Lee
American soldier, he refused Lincoln's offer to head the Union army and agreed to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led several major battles until his defeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
Advantages of Either side