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Exam #3 (part one), Exam Three (part two)
Terms in this set (68)
What do we know about Isaiah as a prophet?
When did Isaiah prophesy?
From at least 739 to 681
How have liberal critics attacked the unity and authorship of Isaiah?
that Isaiah 40-66 was written by "deuteron-Isaiah," an anonymous author in the 500's to 400's, who added his 27 chapters to Isaiah's writings from the 700's
How does internal and external evidence argue for the unity of Isaiah?
External- when Jesus reads from "the scroll of the prophet Isaiah" (Luke 4:17-19), He quotes Isaiah 61, which supports Isaiah's writing of the last part of the book
Internal- cites common terms, expressions, and ideas across 1-39 and 40-66, pointing to a single author of the whole of Isaiah
What are the two major sections of Isaiah?
Judgement Coming to Judah (1-39)
Restoration after Judgement (40-66)
What is the purpose of Isaiah?
to encourage the nation to return to God and trust Him in the midst of coming calamity
What are the two phases or parts of the purpose?
(1) the nation will be judged for sin
(2) God will restore them to their land and establish His rule over the earth
What does each part or phrase of the Isaiah purpose statement call us to do?
(1-39)- a call to holiness, repentance, and obedience
(40-66)- a proclamation of comfort and assurance of God's care
What two features of the Jews' covenant relationship with God does the book of Isaiah remind of us of (including the central passage for each feature)? Because of these two features, what must happen?
(1) They are chosen instruments of God.
(2) They also are accountable to God.
Therefore, sin must be judged before blessing can commence.
According to Walter Kaiser, what mistake have the Jews made in the times of Isaiah?
The people falsely assumed that god would never visit Zion with destruction- He would only devastate His promise of an everlasting plan.
What does Isaiah's vision of God in chapter 6 show him about God?
God's holiness and glory
What is Isaiah's response to what he sees?
He is dismayed because of his sin.
How does the purpose of Isaiah 1-5 mesh with Isaiah 6:9-12?
(1)Isaiah 1-5 proves the nation's sin.
(2)Isaiah 6:9-12 says that they face God's discipline because they did not listen to Isaiah.
What is a remnant? How does that word describe Israel's future?
a "tenth" that remains after destruction, which will be the holy seed
God will restore Jerusalem and it will be a center of His glory through the earth
What is the historical context for Isaiah 7?
Syria and Israel have ______________ to attach Jerusalem, and Judah is scared.
What sign does God give to Ahaz in Isaiah 7:14?
a virgin will give birth to a son. Before he grows up, Syria and Israel will be destroyed and he and the land will prosper
What are the immediate and greater impacts of the sign (given to Ahaz in Isaiah 7:14)?
(1) Jerusalem will be rescued from Israel and Syria.
(2) Ahaz and his new wife produced Hezekiah (God with us). A time of blessing.
(1) Messiah is virgin born, bringing restoration and a greater kingdom.
(2) Child further described
How do Isaiah 9:6-9 and Isaiah 11:1-9 add to the greater impact?
The child is further described (read scriptures)
What is the literary structure of Isaiah 40-66?
It consists of three sections of nine chapters each.
How is God portrayed in Isaiah 40-48?
His greatness is described, particularly in His role as creator and deliverer.
How is He distinguished from idols?
in light of His ability to predict the future
What title is given to the deliverer described in Isaiah 49-57?
In what two ways is this title used in the section (Isaiah 49-57)?
(1) an individual serving the nation
(2) all of Israel serving the nations
In Isaiah 49-57, how does the Messiah's role compare to Israel's role as agents of God's blessing to the nations?
the Messiah steps into Israel's role as the vehicle of God's blessing to the nations
How is this character's role described in Isaiah 52:14 to 53:12?
(1) His suffering astonishes many.
(2) His glorious triumph will amaze the kings of the earth.
(3) His death for sin will lead to his greatness being established.
What does Messiah do in Isaiah 58-66?
will establish His rule over the earth, the culmination of the age- a new age
How is the age described (four ways) (Isaiah 58-66)?
(1) A time of sincere repentance.
(2) The new Jerusalem is established.
(3) The new heavens and new earth.
(4) The Spirit-filled Messiah ministers.
What three truths have been established by the end of Isaiah?
(1) Israel and Judah face God's discipline due to their sin and God's holiness
(2) Judah can be assured of great glory when God establishes His rule over all the earth led by the Messiah.
(3) An ultimate payment for sin is made by the Messiah.
What three things summarize the 700's in Israel and Judah?
(1) Israel is gone. Their sin leads to destruction.
(2) Judah is threatened, but manages to survive.
(3) The Messiah is now proclaimed with even more detail to be the one through whom God delivers Judah.
In the 600's, who is the great world power? What new world power is emerging?
How does Egypt come into the picture during this time of the 600's? What effect on Judah does this have?
Egypt now moves to expand, long held in check by Assyria. Pharaoh Neco kills King Josiah, on the way to fight the Chaldeans. Babylon defeats Egypt and Judah becomes a vassal state now to king Nebuchadnezzar. Egypt defeats Babylon in a major battle.
Judah now allies with Egypt.
In what three stages doe sBabylon deal with Judah?
What two threats does Judah face in the 600's?
What four prophetic books are written in the 600's?
Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, and Jeremiah
What do we know about the prophet Nahum? What are the dates? To whom is it written to?
He writes from Elkosh.
Between 663-654, about 100 years after Jonah
What do we know about the prophet Habakkuk? What are the dates? To whom is it written to?
He was a Levitical musician (perhaps).
Just before Babylon attacks Judah, about 630-605.
What do we know about the prophet Zephaniah? What are the dates? To whom is it written to?
He is a part of the royal family as a descendent of Hezekiah with subsequent high social standing.
Between 622-612; during the reign of Josiah
What is the purpose of Nahum?
to comfort Judah by predicting a serious fall showing that God is just and in control
What is the purpose of Habakkuk?
to motivate Judah to forsake their sin and to trust God through the coming disaster
What is the purpose of Zephaniah?
to challenge Judah to humble repentance as God's day of wrath for all nations approaches
How do the messages of Nahum and Jonah relate to each other?
They both deal with Assyria.
What do the messages of Nahum and Jonah tell us about God's mercy and justice?
Jonah: Ninevah repents and is spared (God's mercy).
Nahum: Nineveh's sin is punished (God's justice).
What do the messages of Nahum and Jonah tell us about how we should pray for oppressed people?
(1) Seek God's mercy to be shown to all people, even the worst of them.
(2) Seek God's justice to cover the earth so that the abused and oppressed are protected.
How does Nahum's book comfort Judah?
It comforts Judah to learn that these brutal tyrants are destroyed, magnifying God's justice and control of the nations.
What three arguments does Habakkuk use to persuade Judah to repent?
(1) God will use the Chaldeans to discipline Judah.
(2) The proud and self-sufficient epitomized in Babylon, cannot save themselves from God's wrath.
(3) God is the King of the Earth, about to subdue everything under His rule.
Why is God disciplining Judah, based on Habakkuk 2 and God's commitment to Judah's survival?
(1) Only those who depend on God will survive God's coming wrath. (vs. 4) (Rom. 1:16-17)
(2) The proud.self-sufficient ones will fall (Babylon). The humble ones, who depend on God, will survive.
(3) Since God is committed to Judah's survival, since only God-trusters will survive, God must discipline Judah until they depend on Him.
What phrase does Zephaniah borrow from Joel as the theme of his book?
What does that phrase mean?
the "Day of Yahweh"
In light of God's coming wrath, what does Zephaniah urge the Jews to do in 2:1-3?
(1) Gather together before that day comes.
(2) Seek God, righteousness, and humility.
(3) Then, you may be spared.
What do Zephaniah's last words describe?
God restoring His repentant people.
What do we know about the prophet Jeremiah?
He is the son of Hilkiah, a Levitical priest who lived in Anathoth, just outside Jerusalem. Jeremiah was active as a prophet for at least 41 years.
When does Jeremiah prophesy? (Be able to think your way through the major events of the region from 722 through 586, including Assyria, Egypt, and Babylon.
Begins prophesying in the 13th year of Josiah, until the exile of the remaining people in Jerusalem, from 627 to 586.
Israel had gone into captivity about a century earlier and Assyria remained the major world power. Assyria repeatedly attacked Judah and extorted money from the Judean kings. However, the Assyrians were losing their power quickly to the new world power- Babylon. Babylon besieged Jerusalem for about 20 years before Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the city and the Temple in 586, taking the population captive to Babylon.
What two kings reign during Jeremiah's time as a prophet, and what do they do for Judah?
Manasseh and Josiah
What textual problem with Jeremiah did the professor identify?
the differences between extant (actually have manuscript) Hebrew copies of Jeremiah, and extant Greek translations of Jeremiah (in the Septuagint)
What is the literary structure of Jeremiah? Does the book have an overall unity and flow? Explain.
it is not arranged chronologically and appears to be arranged thematically
What is the purpose of Jeremiah?
to proclaim God's judgement of His faithless people and the nations, yet with the hope of a lasting future restoration.
What two attitudes characterize the Jews when Jeremiah is active as a prophet? What is Jeremiah's response?
The Jews hold superficially to the forms of religious ritual yet, they continue to practice things that are hateful to God, including idolatry.
Jeremiah proclaims that God is not fooled. He is coming soon to vindicate His greatness.
What two responses does Jeremiah give to Gentiles who may be tempted to look on at Judah's discipline with amusement?
(1) God's wrath is also coming to the gentile nations, especially those who have attached Judah.
(2) A new covenant will restore Judah with a new heart to obey God.
How does God reassure Jeremiah in chapter 1, in light of his difficult task to be a prophet of doom to Judah? (two ways)
God assures Jeremiah that it all has been planned in advance, and that God is there to protect him.
In Jeremiah 2-45, how is Judah's sin displayed (two ways)?
Open rebellion and profane idolatry
How is Judah pictured in Jeremiah 3, in light of her sister Israel?
Judah is seen as a treacherous *****, just like Israel was 100 years earlier.
What three points does Jeremiah make from the Temple steps in chapters 7-10, according to Walt Kaiser?
(1) Attendance at the temple is no substitute for repentance.
(2) Observance of religious acts is no substitute for obedience.
(3) Possession of God's word is no substitute for responding to what it says.
What is the climatic message of doom offered in Jeremiah 25? What will happen to Judah? For how long? How does Judah respond to this message?
Since Judah has not listened, they are going into exile.
They reject Jeremiah and his message.
How do the priests and prophets respond to Jeremiah's warnings?
The priests and prophets seek to kill him for prophesying against Jerusalem, when Jehoiachim is king.
What does Jeremiah challenge King Zedekiah to do in chapter 27, in light of Babylon's first two plundering of Judah? What teaching device does he use to illustrate his point? How does Hananiah the prophet respond? What is God's response to Hananaiah?
to submit to Nebuchadnezzar.
a wood yoke: " God's will is to go into Babylon in exile. If you resist, you will die.
delivers a false prophecy that Nebuchadnezzar will be defeated in two years
Amen, so be it. But then God tells Jeremiah to return with an iron yoke. They will go to Babylon and Hananiah will die.
In Jeremiah 29, how do those already exiled to Babylon respond to Jeremiah's letter to them?
resisted by the priests and prophets. They want to do harm to him
What two features of the New Covenant did we study in Jeremiah 30-33?
God promises forgiven sin and changed hearts.
The Messiah governs the new covenant age.
Why are the Gentile nations judged, according to Jeremiah 46-51? Is the judgement justified? Explain.
God will bring justice to the nations, especially those nations who have abused His people.
This judgement is shown to be justified, never excessive.
What is the purpose of Jeremiah 52?
hope for restoration remains
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