591 terms

IELTS

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

civilian
Eight of the passengers were soldiers and one was a marine; the rest were civilians.
complicated
if some of the requirements for graduation seem complicated, see your guidance counsellor. He will be glad to explain them to you.
concur
Good sportsmanship requires you to accept the umpire's decision even if you do not concur with it.
confirm
My physician thought I had broken my wrist, and an X-ray later confirmed his opinion.
digress
At the point of his talk, the speaker digressed to tell us of his incident in his childhood, but then he got right back to his topic.
condiment
There is a shelf in our kitchen for pepper, salt, mustard, catsup and other condiments.
devour
The hikers were so hungry that they devoured the hamburgers as fast as they were served.
edible
Never eat wild mushrooms, even though they look edible. They may be poisonous.
glutton
I had a second helping and I would have the third except that I didn't want to be considered as a glutton.
luscious
he watermelon were very luscious. Everyone wanted another slice
palatable
The main dish had little flavor, but I made it palatable by adding condiments.
slake
On a sultry afternoon, you can see a long line of people at the drinking fountain, waiting to slake their thirst.
succulent
The stake will be dry if you leave it in the oven longer. Take it out now if you want it to be succulent.
voracious
Chester would not be overweight if he were not a voracious eater.
chronic
Carl's sore arm is not a new development, but the return of a chronic ailment.
Rhoda is a chronic complainer. She is always dissatisfied.
concurrent
When a strike is settled, there will probably be an increase in wages and a concurrent increase in prices.
dawdle
My sister dawdles over dishes. Mother gets them done without wasting time.
imminent
By the sudden darkening of the skies and a thunder in the distance, we could tell that the rain was imminent.
incipient
Certain serious diseases can be successfully treated if detected in incipient stages.
intermittent:
There were intervals when the sun broke through the clouds , because the showers were intermittent.
perennial
Don't think that war only plagued in our times. It has been a perennial curse of man.
Some grasses last only a year. Others are perennial.
procrastinate
Most of the picnickers took cover when rain seemed imminent. The few procrastinated got drenched.
protract
We had planned to stay for only lunch but, at the host's insistence, we protracted our visit until after dinner.
sporadic
Though polio has been practically wiped out, there have been some sporadic cases of the disease.
denizen
On the safari, the hunters stalked lions, tigers and other ferocious denizens of the jungle.
Domicile
The announcement read:" The Coppers have moved, and they invite you to visit them at their new domicile, 22 Apple Street.
inmate
When the warder took charge, the prison had fewer than 100 inmates.
migrate
Because they were persecuted in England,the Puritans migrated to Holland.
In winter, many European birds migrate to the British Isles in search of a more temperature climate.
native
The entire Russo family are natives of New Jersey except their grandparents, who were born in Italy.
Tobacco, tomatoes, and potatoes are native American plants that were introduced into European by explorers returning from the New World.
Nomad
Nomads have no fixed homes, but move from region to region to secure their food supply.
Nomadic
Would you like to give up your permanent residence for the nomadic adventures of trailer living.
Sojourn
On his trip home, Gerald will stop in St. Louis for two -day sojourn with relatives.
Economize
Housewives can economize by buying their milk in gallon containers.
Frugal
The old man had nothing to eat but bread and cheese; yet he offered to share this frugal meal with his visitor.
The allowance of $5 a week for lunches and fares is not much, but you can get by on it if you are frugal.
Impoverish
The increase in dues is only 10 cents, it won't impoverish any member
indigence
By hand work, countless thousands of Americans have raised themselves from indigence to wealth.
Affluent
the new wing to the hospital was made possible by a gift of $500.000 from an affluent contributor.
Avarice
People who suffer avarice spend less and save much more than they should.
covet
Cory coveted his neighborhood's farm but couldn't get her to sell it.
dowry
With his wife's dowry, the young attorney was able to open a law office.
fleece
If your brother paid $400 for that car, he was fleeced. The mechanic says it is worth $150.
Hoard
Salas Marner had a reputation as a miser who hoarded every penny he could get his hands on.
lavish
The young heir was warned that he would soon have nothing left if he continued to be lavish with his money.
Vera's composition is good, but it doesn't deserve the lavish praise that Linda gave it.
lucrative
Because his gas station did not produce a sufficient profit, the owner decided to go into a more lucrative business.
means
To own an expensive home, a yacht, and a limousine, you need to be a man of means.
opulence
Dicken contrasts the opulence of French's nobility with the indigence of her peasants.
sumptuous
The car with the leather upholstery and thick rugs is beautiful but a bit sumptuous for a person of my simple tastes.
apprehensive
Several apprehensive parents telephoned the school when their children were late in getting home from museum trip.
cower
Brave men defy tyrants, instead of cowering before them.
craven
A hero risks his life to help others, a craven runs from the scene.
dastardly
It was dastardly of the captain to desert the sinking vessel and leave the passengers to fend for themselves.
intimidate
The younger boy would not have given the playing field so quickly if the older boys had not intimidated them.
timid
If the other team challenges us, we should accept. Let's not be so timid.
trepidation
I thought Carol would be nervous when she made the speech, but she delivered it without trepidation.
audacious:
Risking serious injury, the outfielder made an audacious leap against the concrete wall to caught the powerfully hit ball.
After we had been waiting for about 20 minutes, an audacious freshman came along and tried to get in at the head of the line.
Dauntless:
the frightened sailors wanted to turn back, but their dauntless leader urged them to sail on.
exploit:
Rober. E. Peary won worldwide fame for his exploits as an Arctatic explorer.
fortitude:
The captain showed remarkable fortitude in continuing to lead their men despite painful wound.
indomitable:
Columbus had an indomitable belief that he would reach the land by sailing west.
plucky:
Though defeated, our team put up a plucky defense against taller and huskier opponents.
rash:
When a person loses his temper, he may say something rash and regret it afterwards.
accede:
when I asked my English teacher if I might change my topic, she readily acceded to my request.
accord:
Though we are in accord on what our goals should be, but we differ on the means for achieving them.
compact
: The states bordering the Delaware River have entered into a compact for sharing its water.
compatible:
Miss Evans knows that Authur and I can not be on the same committee. We are not compatible.
compromise :
At first, the union and the manager were far apart on wages, but they finally came to a compromise.
conform:
when a new style of clothes appears, women usually hasten to confrom it.
consistent:
By bringing up an unrelated matter, you are not being consistent with your previous statement that you should stick to the topic.
correspond:
The rank of the second leiutenant in the Army corresponds to that of ensign in the Navy.
Dovetail:
Gilbert's skill as a writer dovetailed Sullivan's talent as a composer, resulting in the famous Gilbert and Sullivan operettas.
reconcile:
After our quarrel, my brother and I refused to talk to each other until our Mother reconciled us.
relent:
The Mayor has banned all lawn sprinkling because of water shortage. However, if the reservoirs fill up, he may relent somewhat.
altercation:
The teacher halted the altercation by separating two opponents before they could come to blows.
antagonize:
The official antagonized the leader of his party by accusing him of cowardice.
cleavage:
Our party hopes to repair the cleavage in its ranks so that it may present a united front in the coming elections.
discord:
Billy Budd put an end to the discord aboard the right-of-man. He was an excellent peacemaker.
discrepancy:
Eighty students came to the dance but only seventy-four tickets were collected. Can you account for this discrepancy?
dissent:
The vote approving the amendment was far from unanimous; six members dissented.
embroil:
Motorists who disregard traffic regulations eventually become embroiled with law.
estrange:
A quarrel over inheritance estranges brothers for many years.
friction:
At the budget hearing, there was considerable friction between supporters and opponents of higher taxes.
irreconcilable:
It is doubtful that anyone can make peace between estranged partners. They have become irreconcilable.
litigation:
Some business disputes can be settled out the court; others require litigation.
at variance:
Cythia is an independent thinker. Her opinions are often at variance with those of the rest of the class.
wrangle:
When I left, two neighbors were quarreling noisily. When I returned an hour later, they were still wrangling
compulsory:
State law makes attendance at school compulsory for children of certain ages.
entail:
Can you family afford the extra expense a larger apartment entails?
essence:
The union and management held a lengthy meeting without getting to the essence of the men's dissatisfaction-low wages.
gratuitous:
were it not for your gratuitous intervention, the children would have quickly settled their dispute.
imperative:
If you have failed a subject you need for graduation, it is imperative that you go to summer school.
incumbent:
He felt incumbent on him to pay for the window since he had hit the ball that broke it.
indispensable:
We can do without luxuries and entertainment. However, food, clothing and, shelter are indispensable.
necessitate:
Mr.Gans told Helen that her refusal to work necessitates his sending for her parents.
oblige:
If your friend were in trouble, wouldn't you feel oblige to go his help?
obviate.
Karen has agreed to lend me the book I need. This obviates my trip to the library.
prerequisite:
A mark of a least 75% in Basic Art is a prerequisite for Advanced Art.
pressing:
Before preparing tomorrow's party, I have some more pressing matters to attend to , such as finishing reports.
superfluous:
Since we have enough food for the picnic, please don't bring any because it will only be superfluous.
forearm:
Henry protected his face for George's blows by raising his forearms.
forebear:
ant: descendant;
His forebears migrated to American for Ireland.
foreboding:
Before the day of the accident, I had a foreboding that something would go wrong.
forecast:
Have you listened to the weather forecast for tomorrow?
forefront:
In combat the officer was always standing in the forefront of the attack, leading his men on to victory.
foregoing:
Carefully review the foreboding chapter before reading any further.
foremost:
Did you know Benjamin Franklin was one of the foremost inventors of the eighteenth century?
foreshadow:
Our defeat in the championship game was foreshadowed by the injuries to two of our star players in a previous game.
foresight:
Foresight is better than hindsight.
.foreword:
Before Chapter I, there is a brief foreword in which the author explains why he wrote the book.
misbelief:
People thought the Earth was flat until Columbus corrected that misbelief.
misdeed:
The wrongdoer was punished for his misdeed by a fine and imprisonment.
misfire:
The bear escaped when the hunter's rifle misfired.
misgiving:
Dad has no misgivings when my mother takes the wheels because she is an excellent driver.
mishap:
Right after the accident, each driver blamed the other for the mishap.
mislay:
Yesterday I mislaid the biology book, it took me about a half of hour to find it.
mislead
: Some traffic signs are so confusing that they mislead the traveler.
output
The output of the average American factory worker is steadily increasing.
outrun
We scored a touchdown when Joel caught a forward pass and outran his pursuers
outspoken
Marty sometimes hurts others when he criticizes their work because he is too outspoken.
outwit
Sherlock Homes manages to outwit the cleverest criminals.
overbearing
When the monitor gave too many orders, the teacher scolded him for being overbearing
overburden
It would overburden me to have a piano lesson Thursday because I have so much homework on that day.
overconfident
I was sure of passing that I wasn't going to study, but Dad advised me not to be overconfident.
overdose
Don't take more medicine the doctor ordered; an overdose may be dangerous.
overestimate
Joe underestimated the capacity of the bus when he thought it could hold of 60; it has room for only 48.
overgenerous
Because the service was poor; Mom thought Dad was overgenerous in leaving the waiter a 15% tip
overshadow
Gary's errors in the field overshadowed his good work at the plate.
oversupply
We have a shortage of unskilled technicians but an oversupply of unskilled workers.
overwhelm
The department store guards were nearly overwhelmed by the crowds of shoppers waiting for the sale to begin.
unabridged
Though an abridged dictionary is convenient to use, it contains far fewer definitions than an unabridged dictionary.
unbiased
Don't ask the mother of a contestant to serve as a judge because it may be hard for her to remain unbiased.
unconcern
The audience was breathless with anxiety during the daring tightrope act, though the acrobats themselves performed with seeming unconcern for their own safety.
undeceive
If you think I can get Mr.Owen to hire you because he is my cousin,let me undeceive you. I have no influence with him.
ungag
With the dictator's downfall, the censorship decrees were abolished and the press was ungagged.
unnerve
The unsportsmanlike noises of the fans so unnerved our star player that he missed two foul shots in a row.
unquenchable
Many teenagers have an unquenchable thirst for adventure stories, they read one after another
unscramble
The previous secretary had mixed up the files so badly that it took my sister about a week to unscramble them.
unshackle
When mutinous sailors were put in irons in the older days, nobody was allowed to unshackle them
unwary
An unwary pedestrian is more like to be struck by a car than those who looks both ways and crosses with the light,
underbrush
On its way through the dense jungle, the patrol had to be constantly wary of enemy soldiers concealed in the underbrush.
undergraduate
Most undergraduates took four years to earn a degree, but some achieve it sooner by attending summer sessions.
underpayment
If too little deducted from Dad's weekly wages for the income tax, it results in an underpayment at the end of the year.
underprivileged
The underprivileged child from the crowded slum tenement has more problems to overcome than a child from the middle-class home.
underscore
When we take notes, the teacher wants us to underscore the items that are especially important.
undersell
When discount houses tried to undersell the department stores, the latter reduced prices too, and adopted the slogan " We will not be undersold".
undersigned
Among the undersigned in the petition to the governor were some of the most prominent persons in the state.
understatement
Frank's remark that he was "slightly bruised" in the accident was an understatement, he suffered two fractured ribs.
understudy
When the star is recuperating from her illness,her role will be played by her understudy
upcoming
The management will be glad to email you its " Future Attractions" leaflet which contains news of upcoming films.
upgrade
to qualify for better jobs, many employees attend evening courses where they can upgrade their skills.
upheaval
The prime minister's proposal for new taxes created such an upheaval that his government fell.
upkeep
My neighbor traded his own car because the upkeep had become too high.
upright
When knocked off his feet, the boxer waited till the count of nine before returning to the upright position.
upstart
When the new representative entered the legislature, some older members received him coldly because they regarded him as an upstart.
uproot
The love of liberty is so firmly embedded in men's hearts that no tyrant can hope to uproot it.
upturn
Most merchants report a slowdown in the sales for October, but confidently upturn with the approach of Christmas.
adapt
People who work at night have to adapt themselves to sleeping in the daytime
Clarence Dạy's book LIFE WITH FATHER was adapted for the stage.
addicted
You won't become addicted to smoking if you refuse cigarettes when they are offered.
adequate
The student who arrived ten minutes late did not have adequate time to finish the test.
adherent
You can count on Martha to support in your campaign for reelection. She is one of your most loyal adherents.
adjacent
The island of Cuba is adjacent to Florida.
adjoin
Mexico adjoins The United States.
adjourn
The judge adjourned the court to the following Monday.
advent
The Weather Bureau gave adequate warning of the advent of the hurricane.
adversary
Before the contest began, the champion shook hands with his adversary.
adverse
Because of the adverse reviews, the producer announced that the play will close with tonight's performance.
enervate
Irma was so enervated by the broiling sun that she nearly fainted.
evoke
The suggestion to lengthen the school year evoked the considerable opposition.
invoke
Refusing to answer the question, the witness invoked the Fifth Amendment, which protects a person from being compelled to testify against himself.
excise
With a penknife, he peeled the apple and excised the wormy part.
incise
The letters on the monument had been incised by a chisel.
exclusive
The exclusive club does not readily accept newcomers.
Before the game, each team had exclusive use of the field for 10-minute practice period.
inclusive
The film will be shown from August 22 to 24, inclusive, the total of three days.
inhibit
Ellen told the child not to cry, but he could not inhibit his tear.
expel
Expelled from the university because of the poor grades, the student applied for readmission the following term.
impel
Greg's low mark in the midterm impelled him to study harder for the final.
implicate
The accused is not only guilty part; two other are were also implicated.
impugn
The treasurer should not have been offended when asked for a financial report. No one was impugning his honesty.
incarcerate
On July 14, 1789, the people of Paris freed the prisoners incarcerated in the Bastilles.
inscribe
The name of the winner will be inscribed on the medal.
insurgent
The King promised to pardon any insurgent who would lay down his arms.
General Washington led the insurgent forces in the Revolutionary War.
Fatigue
Why not take the elevator? Climbing up the stairs will fatigue you.
Infallible
When Phill disputes my answer or I question his,we often take it to our math teacher. We consider her judgement infallible.
pilfer
The shoplifter was apprehended with a number of pilfered articles in his possession.
province
If your brother misbehaves in school, you have no right to punish him; that is your parent's province.
reflect:
I could have had given a much better answer if I had had more time to reflect.
Apprehend
Now I see how foolish I was to apprehend the outcome of the test. I passed it easily.
cleave:
Some of the inhabitants are hostile to new ways; they cleave to the customs and traditions of the past.
culprit
The last time we were late for the party, I was the culprit. I was not ready when you called for me.
facetious
Bob meant it when he said he was quitting the team. He was not being facetious.
insoluble
Scientists are finding solutions to many problems that up to now are insoluble.
Salt dissolves in water, but sand is insoluble.
abate
The water shortage is abating, but it is a matter of concern.
Mike's close defeat in tennis tournament has not abated his zeal for the game.
accord
If both sides to the dispute can be brought to the conference table, they can come to an accord.
Check to see if your definition accords with the one in the dictionary.
aggravate
if you sunburn itches, don't scratch; that will aggravate it.
belligerent
Bert still likes to settle his arguments with his fists. When will he learn that it's childish to be so belligerent ?
conspicuous
Among the Manhattan's skyscrapers, the Empire State Building is conspicuous for its superior height.
craft
The weavers of the Oriental rugs are famous for their superior craft.
The Greek took Troy by craft; they use the trick of the wooden horse.
deter
The heavy rain did not deter people from coming to the school play. Nearly every seat was occupied.
fictitious
The suspect said he lived at 234 Green Street, but he later admitted it was a fictitious address.
miniature
She has a miniature stapler in her purse. It takes up a little room
immaculate
The curtains were spotless; the tablecloth was immaculate, too.
quintet
Because it has five players, a basketball team is often called a quintet
defiance
The union showed defiance of the court order against the strike by calling the workers off their jobs.
infraction
Parking at the bus stop is illegal. Motorists committing this infraction are heavily fined.
insubordinate
Do as Mother says. If you are insubordinate, Father will probably hear.
insurrection
Troops had to be used in 1794 to put down an insurrection.
malcontent
The stoppage was caused by malcontents who felt they had been ignored when the promotions were made.
perverse
Though I had carefully explained the shorter routes to him, the perverse youngster came by the longer way.
sedition:
the author of the pamphlet advocating the overthrow of the government was arrested for sedition.
transgress
Ronald's previous record showed he had been an obedient student and had never transgressed school regulations.
trespass
The owner erected a "Keep Off" sign to discourage strangers from trespassing on his land.
acquiesce
Though I wasn't enthusiastic about Tom's plan to go fishing, I acquiesced in it because there seemed there was nothing else to do
allegiance
Every school day, millions of children "pledge allegiance to the United States of America and the republic for which it stands."
defer
Husbands as a rule do not decide on the colors of home furnishings, but defer to their wives in these matters.
docile
He is easy to teach, but his brother is not so docile.
meek
Only two of the girls protested when ordered off the field. The rest were too meek to complain.
pliable
We tried to get Joe to change his mind, but he was not pliable. Perhaps you can influence him.
default
The Royals must be on the playing ground before 4pm. If they do not appear, they will lose the game by default.
The finance company took away Gee's car when he defaulted on the payments.
heedless
Before his injury, he used to jump from the stairs, heedless of the "No Jumping" sign. Now he pays attention to it.
inadvertent
Unfortunately, I made an inadvertent remark about Irma's failure while he was present.
neglect
Some of the students of the play neglected their studies during the rehearsals, but after the performance they caught up quickly.
For leaving his post, the guard was charged with neglect of duty.
remiss
The owner of stolen car was himself remiss. He left the keys in the vehicle.
aver
Two eyewitnesses averred they had seen the defendant at the scene.
veracity
Since you have lied to us in the past, you should not wonder that we doubt your veracity.
verdict
the hung jury is one that has been unable to reach a verdict.
verify
So far, the charges have been neither disproved or verified
veritable
As the pretended heirs of Peter Wills were disposing of the fortune, the veritable heirs arrived.
slovenly
You would not expect anyone so neat in her personal appearance to be slovenly in her housekeeping.
discreet
You were discreet not to say anything about our plans when Herry was here. He can't keep a secret.
heed
Our teacher said that we might have a test but I didn't heed her. That's why I was unprepared.
meticulous
Before signing a contract, one should read carefully, including the fine print. This is one case where it pays to be meticulous.
scrupulous
Mr.Brooks refused to be a judge because his wife'nice was a contestant. He is very scrupulous.
verity
That smoking is injurious to health is a scientifically established verity.
scrutinize
The guard at the gate scrutinized his pass before letting him in, but he just glanced at mine.
solicitude
My brother's solicitude over getting into college ended when he received the word that he had been accepted.
vigilance
The night watchman who apprehended the thief was praised for his vigilance.
wary
General Braddock might not have been defeated if he had been wary of an ambush.
proficient
When I fell behind in French, the teacher asked one of the most proficient students to help me.
profuse
Despite a large income, the actor has saved very little because he is a profuse spender.
Project
Huge streams of water, projected by the fireboat's powerful engine, fell on the blazing pier.
propel
Jet-propelled planes travel at very high speeds.
proponent
At the budget hearing, both the proponents and opponents of the tax increase will be able to present their views
submit
Though he boasted he would never be taken alive, the outlaw submitted without a struggle when the police arrived.
tractable:
For his cabinet, the dictator wanted tractable men. Therefore, he appointed no one whom he could not control.
protrude
Keep your feet under your desk; do not let them protrude into the aisle.
provoke:
Jeff's account of his experiences on a farm provoked much laughter.
There would have been no fight if you hadn't provoked your brother by calling him names.
amicable
Charlotte is an amicable child; everybody likes her.
amity
We must look ahead when the dispute is over and amity is restored.
amorous
From the famous balcony scene, the amorous Romeo expresses undying love for Juliet.
enamoured
An English settler became enamoured of the beautiful princess and married her.
discontent
Dan was discontent at his French mark; he had expected at least 10 points more.
discredit
The parents discredited the child's story since he was in the habit of telling falsehoods.
disintegrate
The explosion disintegrated an entire wing of the factory.
dispassionate .
For a dispassionate account of how the fight started, as a neutral observer -not a participant
disrepair
The bicycle I lent Tom had been in good condition, but he returned it in disrepair.
dissent
When the matter was put to a vote, 29 agreed and 4 dissented.
dissident
The compromise was welcomed by all the strikers except a small dissident group who felt that the raises were too small.
contraband
customs officials examined the luggage of the suspected smuggler but found no contraband.
counter
The student's plan to drop out of school ran counter to his parents' wishes.
contravene
By invading the neutral nation, the dictator contravened his earlier pledge to guarantee its independence.
countermand
The teacher ordered the students to go to the end of the line, but the teacher countermanded the order.
incontrovertible
The suspect's fingerprints on the safe were considered incontrovertible evidence that he had participated in the robbery.
intercede
My brother would have lost the argument if Dad hadn't interceded for him.
intercept
We gained possession of the ball when Russ intercepted a forward pass.
interlinear
It is difficult to make interlinear notes if the space between lines is very small.
interlude
Between World War II and the Korean War, there was a five-year interlude of peace.
intermediary
For his role as intermediary in helping to end the Russo-Japanese War, Theodore Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize.
intermission
During the intermission between the first and second acts, you will have a chance to purchase refreshments.
intersect
Broadway intersects Seventh Avenue at Times Square.
interurban
The only way to get to the next town is by automobile or taxi; there is no interurban bus.
depose
Did the king abdicate or was he deposed?
impose
Cleaning up after the job is the repairman's responsibility. Don't let him impose it on you.
superimpose
Today's snowfall superimposed a fresh two inches on yesterday's accumulation.
transpose
There is a misspelled word on your paper "strenght". Correct it by transposing the last two letters.
conscript
When there are not enough volunteers for the armed forces, the government conscripts additional men
inscription
The inscription on Paul's medal reads " For excellence in English"
prescribe
The law prescribes that aliens may not vote.
Her physician prescribed some pills, a light diet and plenty of rest.
benediction
Before beginning his difficult journey, the young man visited his parents to receive their benediction.
malediction
With her dying breath, Queen Dido pronounced a malediction on Aeneas and all his descendants.
benefactor
The museum could not have been built without the gift of a million dollars by a wealthy benefactor.
malefactor
Shortly after the crime, the malefactor was apprehended and turned over to the police.
beneficiary
The poor and the needy will be the beneficiaries of your gift to the community fund.
benevolent
A benevolent employer has a sincere interest in the welfare of his employees.
malevolent
David Balfour visits his malevolent uncle who tries to kill him.
maladjusted
Carlo was maladjusted in the early stages, not because of poor intelligence but because he couldn't speak English.
malice
I suspect Ronnie stripped me so that I wouldn't be able to play tomorrow. He did it no as a joke but out of malice.
maltreat
The two new photographers were attacked by the mob, and their cameras were smashed. It is disgraceful that they were so maltreated.
decadent
The decadent downtown section was once a flourishing business district.
deciduous
Maple, elm, birch and other deciduous trees lose their leaves in the fall.
demented
Whoever did this must have been demented, no sane person would have been acted in such a way.
demote
For being absent without leave, the corporal was demoted to private.
depreciate
Automobiles depreciate rapidly; a $2500 car is worth less than $2000 with a year of purchase.
The building superintendent feels depreciated if you refer to him as the "janitor".
Despise
He was despised by his fellow Americans for betraying his country.
Deviate:
This teacher notifies the parents when a student neglects his homework, and he will not deviate his rule in your case.
Secede
When Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860, South Carolina seceded from the Union.
Secession
South Caroline's secession was imitated by ten other states and led to the formation of the Confederacy.
Segregate
In most schools. boys and girls attend the same classes, except in health education, where they are segregated.
affinity
Because they share the same language and ideals, Americans and Englishmen have a deep affinity for one another.
confine
I will confine my remarks to the cause of the War in 1812, the next speak will discuss its results.
definitive
# tentative, provisional Remember that your answer will be treated as definitive. You will not be permitted to change it.
finale
Every skit in our class show was loudly applauded from the opening scene to the finale.
fluid
Air, water, molasses and milk are fluids.
During November, the military situation remained fluid, with advances and retreated by both sides.
cajole
to make somebody do something by talking to them and being very nice to them synonym coax
cajole somebody (into something/into doing something) He cajoled me into agreeing to do the work.
cajole something out of somebody I managed to cajole his address out of them.
flux
When prices are in the state of flux, many buyers delay purchases until the conditions are more settled.
influx
The discovery of gold in California in 1848 caused a large influx of settlers from the East.
degenerate
But for the skill of the presiding officer, the debate degenerated into an exchange of insults.
engender
Name-calling engenders hatred.
progenitor
The Bibles states that Adam was a progenitor of human race.
regenerate
The new manager regenerated the losing team and made it a strong contender for first place.
aggregate
The aggregate strength of allies was impressive, though individuals some were quite weak.
aggregation
At the airport, the homecoming champions were welcomed by the aggregation of admirers.
congregation
The minister addressed the congregation on the importance of brotherhood.
gregarious
Except for hermits and recluses, who shun company, most people are gregarious.
Segregation
The warden believes in segregation from the first offender to hardened criminals
Adhere
Apply the stickers according to direction , or it will not adhere
Cohere
I glued together the fragments of the vase, but they did not cohere
Coherence
If the relationship between the first sentence and what follows it is not clear, the paragraph lacks coherence.
Cohesion
There can be no real cohesion in an alliance if the parties have little in common.
Blunder
Have you ever committed the blunder of mailing a letter without a postage stamp
Dispel
The two officers were commended for their skill in dispelling the mob and preventing violence
Diminutive
To an observer in an airplane high over the city​, the largest buildings seem diminutive
Dormant
In early spring,new buds begin to appear on shrubs and trees that have been dormant all winter
Exempt
The three students are exempt from the spelling test, they got 100% in the original test.
succumb
succumb to something His career was cut short when he succumbed to cancer.
He finally succumbed to Lucy's charms and agreed to her request.
She succumbed to the temptation of another drink
Recoil:
He recoiled at the thought of singing in the amateur show, but he went through it because he had promised to participate
Reflection:
When a question is complicated, don't give the answer that comes to mind. Take time for reflection
Yesterday's defeat was no reflection on our players;they did their very best.
Capsize:
When Sam's canoe capsized, I swam over to help him turn it right side up
Contend:
Every spring, baseball writers try to predict two teams that will contend in the next world series.
Divulge
Yesterday our teacher read us a composition without divulging the name of the writer.
Incense:.
Some of the members were so incensed by the way Jack opened the meeting that they walked right out
Magnify
The bacteria in your textbook are greatly magnified, their real size is considerably smaller.
Rummage
Someone must have been rummaged my desk; everything in it is in disorder.
Puncture
: My neighbor swept a nail off his curb, and later it punctured one of his own tires.
traverse
The Trans-Siberian Railroad completed in 1905, traverse the Asian continent.
velocity:
Do you know that light travels at a velocity of 186000 miles a second?
surmount:
At the end of the third quarter, the visitors were ahead by 18 points, a lead that our team was unable to surmount.
vicinity:
Lost: Black cat answering to "Blackie" Vicinity of Main Street and First Avenue.
Vocation:
Ruth is going to be a nurse..Bob plans to enter teaching. I, however, have not yet chosen a vocation.
volition
Did your employer dismiss you,or did you leave of your own volition?
imperil
The fishing vessel was imperiled by high winds, but it managed to reach port safely.
lineage
If you study Franklin D.Roossevelt's lineage, you will find that he was descended from a Dutch ancestor who settled in American in 1638.
presently
We won't have to wait long for our bus. It will be here presently
opinionated
It is hard to reason with an opinionated person; He won't change his mind even when you give him objective evidence.
adroit
The adroit passing enabled us to score four touchdowns.
ambidextrous
Russ is an ambidextrous hitter; he can bat right-handed or left-handed.
dexterity
You can't expect an apprentice to have the same dexterity as a master craftsman.
alias
Inspector Javert discovered that Monsieur Madeleine was not the mayor's real name but an alias for Jean Valjean, an ex-convict.
Jean Valjean, alias Monsieur Madeleine was arrested by Inspector Javert
clandestine
Before that Revolutionary War, an underground organisation, known as the Sons of Liberty, used to hold clandestine meetings in Boston.
latent
A good education will help you discover and develop your latent talents.
lurk
General Braddock's troops, marching in column, were easy targets for the Indians lurking behind trees.
seclude
To find a quiet place to study, Bruce had to seclude himself in the attic.
stealthy
The burglar must have been very stealth if he was able to get past the two watchmen without being noticed.
apprise
The magazine has apprised its readers of an increase in rates beginning January 1.
avowal
The white flag of surrenders is an avowal of defeat.
elicit
By questioning the witness, the attorney elicited that the fact that it was raining at the time of the accident.
enlighten
The new student was going to in the wrong direction until someone enlightened him that his room was at the end of the hall.
manifest
My art teacher told my parents that I have failed to manifest any interest in her subject.
It is now manifest that, if I do no do my work, I will fall the course.
overt
The teacher didn't believe that Ned was annoying me until she saw him in the overt act of pulling my hair.
colossal
The game will be played in a colossal sports arena with a seating capacity of 600000 people
commodious
Even during changes of classes, there is no crowding because the halls and stairways are commodious.
gamut
After the test,I thought at first I had done very well, then quite well and finally poorly. I ran the gamut from confidence to despair.
infinite
In our science lesson tomorrow, we will consider whether space is infinite and bounded
infinitesimal
If there is any salt in this soup, it must be infinitesimal. I can't taste it.
inordinate
Alex kept my book for such an ordinate length of time that I shall never lend him anything again.
magnitude .
Shopping for clothes can be a small matter for some , but a problem of the greatest magnitude for others
inflate
Since the football has lost air, we shall need a pump to inflate it.
iota
If you make the same mistakes again, despite all my warnings, I will not have one iota of sympathy for you.
picayune
The trouble with your studying is that you spend too much time on picayune details and not enough on the really important matters.
pittance
At those low wages, few apply for the job. Who want to work for a pittance.
puny
The building dwarfs the surrounding buildings. By comparison to it, they seem puny.
superabundance
Our committee does not need any more help. We have a superabundance of helpers.
debilitate
# invigorate The patient was debilitated by the fever that he lacked the strength to sit up
decrepit
# sturdy He went past the redcoats on a horse that looked decrepit and about to collapse.
dilapidated
Up the road was an abandoned farmhouse, partially in ruins, and near it a barn, even more dilapidated.
restore
Enervated by the heat, we rested under a shady tree until our strength was restored.
flimsy
Judy understands algebra well, but I have only a flimsy grasp of the subject.
frail
To be an astronaut, you must be in a robust health. It is not an occupation for a frail person.
incapacitate
Ruth will be absent today. She is incapacitated by a sore throat.
infirmity
On leaving the hospital, the patient felt almost too weak to walk, but he soon overcame this infirmity.
bulwark
For centuries the British regarded their navy as their principal bulwark against invasion.
Citadel
The fortified city of Singapore was once considered unconquerable. In 1942, however, this citadel fell to the Japanese.
Cogent
Excuses for not handing work in on time vary. Some are flimsy, as, for example, " I left it at home". Others are more cogent, such as a physician's notes.
Dynamic
If you elect Audrey, you may be sure she will present our views forcefully and energetically. She is a very dynamic speaker.
formidable
Our hopes for an easy victory sank when our opponents took the field. They were much taller, huskier and looked formidable.
forte
I am better than Jack in English and social studies but not in math; that is his forte.
impregnable
Before World War II, the French regarded their Maginot Line as an impregnable bulwark against a German invasion.
invigorate
If you are enervated by the heat, try a swim in the cool ocean. It will invigorate you.
tenacious
After the dog got the ball, I tried to dislodge it from her tenacious jaws, but I couldn't.
vehement
Your protest was too mild. If it had been more vehement, the dealer might have paid attention to it
vigor
The robust young pitcher performed with his usual vigor for seven innings, but he weakened in the eighth and was removed from the game.
withdraw .
Tom is my principal backer. If he withdraws his support, I don't see how I can be elected
withdrawal
My uncle paid for his vacation trip by making a withdrawal from his bank account.
withdrawn
We talked to the neighbor's youngster and tried to be friendly, but he didn't say anything; he seemed to be withdrawn.
withhold
Please don't interrupt me. If you have something to say, withhold it until I have finished speaking.
withholding tax.
Your employer is required to deduct a certain amount from your salary as a withholding tax payable to the federal government
withstand
The walls of a dam must be strong enough to withstand tremendous water pressure.
Notwithstanding
Notwithstanding their advantage of height, the visiting players were unable to beat our basketball team.
abdicate
The aging king abdicated his throne and went into retirement.
abduct
The Greeks attacked Troy to recover Helen, who had been abducted by the Trojan prince Paris.
abhor
Janet is doing her best to pass English because she abhors the thought of having to repeat it in summer school.
abrasion
The automobile is a total wreck but the driver luckily escaped with minor cuts and abrasion.
abrupt
Today's art lesson came to an abrupt end when the gongs sounded for a fire drill.
abscond
A wide research is underway for the manager who absconded with $100000 of his employer's funds.
daybreak
the time of day when light first appears synonym dawn We left before daybreak.
paralyze
paralyse somebody to make somebody unable to feel or move all or part of their body The accident left him paralysed from the waist down.
absolve
The fact that you were absent when the assignment was given does not absolve you from doing homework.
Of the three suspects, two were found guilty and the third was absolved.
absorbing
That was an absorbing book. It held my interest from the beginning to end.
abstain
My dentist said I would have fewer cavities if I abstained from eating candy.
averse
I am in favor of the dance, but I am averse to holding it on May 25.
avert
The mayor promised to do everything in his power to avert a strike by newspaper employees.
avocation
My uncle, an accountant, composes music as an avocation.
perennial
Authors have come and gone, but Shakespeare has remained a perennial favorite.
Perennials bloom year after year.
perforate.
The physician said the tack had gone through Baby's shoe and sock without perforating her skin
permeate
At breakfast, the aroma of freshly brewed coffee permeates the kitchen and dining room.
perplex
I need help the fourth problem; it perplexes me.
persist
#desist The teacher told Eric to stop whispering. When he persisted, she sent him to the dean.
The rain was supposed to end in the morning, but it persisted through the afternoon and evening.
Pertinent
# irrelevant Stick to the point; don't give the information that is not pertinent.
perturb
Sandra's parents were perturbed when they learned she had failed two subjects.
precede
Did you report follow or precede Jane's ?
preclude
A prior engagement precludes my coming to your party.
precocious
If Nany's three-year-old brother can read, he must be a precocious child.
preconceived
My preconceived dislike for the book disappeared when I read a few chapters.
prefabricated
The prefabricated house was quickly erected by putting together large sections previously constructed at a company.
premature
Since just less than a half of the votes have been counted, my opponent's claims of victory are premature.
premediated
The jury decided that the blow was struck at the time of panic and had been premeditated.
presume
Nineteen of the sailors have been rescued. One is missing and presumed dead.
preview
Last night, my parents attended a preview of a play scheduled to be open next Tuesday.
animosity
Someday the animosities that led the war will be replaced by amity.
animus
Although Howard defeated me in the election, I bear no animus towards him; we are good friends.
equanimity
If you become extremely upset when you lose a game, it is a sign that you lack equanimity.
magnanimous
The first time I was late, Miss O'Neil excused me with the warning that she would not be magnanimous the next time.
unanimity
In almost every discussion there is bound to some disagreement. Don't expect unanimity.
unanimous
Except for one student, who voted "no", the class was unanimous in holding the party.
abound
Our nation abounds in opportunities for well-educated young men and women.
Fish abound in the waters off Newfoundland.
inundate
On Election Night, the victor's offices were inundated by congratulatory messages.
append
If you hand in your report late, append the note explaining the reason for the delay.
impending
After the first flash of lightning, people scurried for the shelter from the impending storm.
pendant
The pendant dangling from the chain around her neck looked like a medal, but it was a watch
pending
Has a decision been reached on a date for the game, or is it still pending?
Barbara agreed to conduct the meeting pending the election of a permanent president.
suspend
She wore a green pendant suspended from a silver chain.
Train service will be suspended from midnight to 4am to permit repairs.
suspense
If you have seen the marks, please tell me whether I passed or failed; don't keep me in suspense.
assimilate
The letter n in the prefix in is often assimilated the following letter. For example, "in"plus "legible" becomes "illegible".
A bright student assimilates knowledge rapidly.d
dissimilar
The gloves are not a pair; they look quite dissimilar.
simulate
Nacy was the star of the show; she simulated the bewildered mother effectively.
desolate
After the war, the villagers hope to return their desolate homes.
After 5:30am, the normally crowded intersection looks desolate.
soliloquy
What the actor says in a soliloquy is heard by no one except the audience.
solitary
A hermit leads to a solitary existence.
solitude
Though I like company, there are times when I prefer solitude.
absolute
A democratic ruler is restricted by a constitution and courts, but a dictator has absolute power.
dissolution
When President Lincoln took office, the Union faced imminent dissolution.
resolve
A witness provided the clue that resolved the mystery.
soluble
Sugar is soluble in water
Someone would have found the answer by now if the problem were soluble.
solvent
In the salt water solution, the water is the solvent, and the salt is the solute.
the examiners found the bank solvent, much to the relief of its depositors.
Improvise
Did the entertainer prepare his jokes before the program, or improvise them as he went along
revise
Before handing in your composition , be sure to revise it carefully.
anachronism
It is an anachronism to say that William Shakespeare "typed" his manuscripts.
chronicle
One of the earliest accounts of King Authur occurs in a 12th-century chronicle of the kings of Britain by Geoffrey of Monmouth
chronology
Bruce named all the Presidents, but he made an error in chronology,
synchronize
The clocks in the library need to be synchronized; one is a minute and a half behind the other.
kleptomania
The billionaire who was caught shoplifting was found to be suffering from kleptomania.
anticipate
to expect something
anticipate something We don't anticipate any major problems.
Our anticipated arrival time is 8.30
blur
a shape that you cannot see clearly, often because it is moving too fast
His arm was a rapid blur of movement as he struck.
Everything is a blur when I take my glasses off.
detect
The tests are designed to detect the disease early.
an instrument that can detect small amounts of radiation
indiscernible
that cannot be seen, heard or understood
The differences are almost indiscernible.
manoeuver
a movement performed with care and skill
a complicated/skilful manoeuvre
You will be asked to perform some standard manoeuvres during your driving test.
The racecar driver struggled to maneuver his car into first place on the last lap.
peripheral
not as important as the main aim, part, etc. of something
peripheral information
matters of peripheral concern
Do not spend too much time on the peripheral questions because they are only worth ten percent of the test grade.

Despite the loss of a few peripheral functions, the airplane will still be able to land safely
array
group or collection of things or people, often one that is large or impressive
Frank was impressed by the wide array of appetizers at Joe's wedding, although he did not partake of any of them because of his diet.
terrestrial
living on the land or on the ground, rather than in water, in trees or in the air
Because of the cool climate, many terrestrial insects live in the soil.
diurnal
# nocturnal during the day
Unlike most other bats, this species is diurnal.
stray
to move away from the place where you should be, without intending to
He strayed into the path of an oncoming car.
dilute
to make something weaker or less effective
Large classes dilute the quality of education that children receive.
freight
goods, but not passengers, that are carried from one place to another, by ship, aircraft, train, or truck, or the system of transporting these goods:
The ship carries both freight and passengers.
juvenile deliquency
the problem of young people who are not yet adults committing crime
stringent
stringent air quality regulations
very strict and that must be obeyed
Licences are only granted under the most stringent conditions
rugged
(of land) wild and not even; not easy to travel over:
rugged landscape/terrain/hills/cliffs
flair
flair for something a natural ability to do something well
He has a flair for languages.
sabotage
sabotage something to prevent something from being successful or being achieved, especially deliberately
Protesters failed to sabotage the peace talks.
The rise in interest rates sabotaged any chance of the firm's recovery.
grandeur
Because I wanted to spend the night in a room of grandeur, I paid several thousand dollars to stay in the hotel's presidential suite.
discruptive
causing problems, noise, etc. so that something cannot continue normally
She had a disruptive influence on the rest of the class.
intrinsic
being an extremely important and basic characteristic of a person or thing:
The strength of a person's intrinsic drive is what determines whether or not that individual will have success in life
plod
to work slowly and continuously, but without imagination, enthusiasm, or interest:
For years, he's plodded away at the same dull routine job.
Alex is just plodding along at school, making very little progress
I'll try not to bore you with lots of plodding details.
fringe
the outer edge of an area or a group
on the northern fringe of the city
fringe something to form a border around something
The beach was fringed by coconut palms.
Her eyes were grey, fringed by long dark lashes
stressor
something that causes stress (= great worry or emotional difficulty):
Constant noise can be a stressor.
resilient
able to feel better quickly after something unpleasant such as shock, injury, etc.
He'll get over it—young people are amazingly resilient.
These plants are very resilient to rough handling.
swing
a change from one opinion or situation to another; the amount by which something changes
He is liable to abrupt mood swings (= for example from being very happy to being very sad).
prolific
producing a lof of things
producing many works, etc.
a prolific author
a prolific goalscorer
prolific rivers
vouch
vouch for something
(formal) to say that you believe that something is true or good because you have evidence for it
synonym confirm
I was in bed with the flu. My wife can vouch for that.
alternate
when one thing comes after another; fluctuate
Instead of choosing one pain reliever, Judy decided to alternate between Aspirin and Tylenol.
Carcass
the body of a dead animal, especially a large one that is soon to be cut up as meat or eaten by wild animals:
Vultures flew around in the sky waiting to pick at the rotting carcass of the deer
endeavor
an attempt to do something, especially something new or difficult
Please make every endeavour to arrive on time
He endeavoured in vain to escape the situation.
The buyer should always endeavour to negotiate terms..
hone
to make something perfect or completely suitable for its purpose
The tennis player practices several hours a day to hone her skills.
Because Jessica wants to hone her cake baking ability, she can usually be found in the kitchen.
The apprentice will hone his mechanical expertise under a mentor and then open his own garage.
niche
a job or position that is very suitable for someone, especially one that they like:
He has carved/made a niche for himself as a financial advisor.
Catastrophic
=devastating =disastrous causing a lot of problems for peopleSYNONYM disastrousa catastrophic failure/collapse/defeat
Disparate
different in every way:
The two cultures were so utterly disparate that she found it hard to adapt from one to the other.
Inexplicable
unable to be explained or understood:
For some inexplicable reason, he's decided to cancel the project.
Inquiry
I've been making inquiries about/into the cost of a round-the-world ticket.
Inquiry into the matter is pointless - no one will tell you anything
Insulation
the act of covering something to stop heat, sound, or electricity from escaping or entering, or the fact that something is covered in this way:
The animal's thick fur provides very good insulation against the arctic cold.
Glass fibre is often used as roof insulation.
Perseverance
continued effort and determination:
Through hard work and perseverance, he worked his way up to the top.
Rally
Supporters/Opponents of the new shopping development are trying to rally localpeople in favour of/against it.
The president has called on the people to rally to/behind the government.
eccentric
a person who is considered by other people to be strange or unusual
Most people considered him a harmless eccentric.
susceptible
easily influenced or harmed by something:
She isn't very susceptible to flattery.
undergo
to experience something that is unpleasant or something that involves a change
After the accident, he underwent reconstructive surgery to rebuild his face
unfold
If a situation or story unfolds, it develops or becomes clear to other people:
Like a lot of people, I've watched the events of the last few days unfold on TV.
unveil
unveil something to show or introduce a new plan, product, etc. to the public for the first time
synonym reveal
They will be unveiling their new models at the Motor Show.
cognition
the use of conscious mental processes:
Young children develop their skills of cognition from their childhood experiences and social interactions
counteract
to do something to reduce or prevent the bad or harmful effects of something
She liked to keep busy all the time to counteract the feelings of uselessness that overcame her whenever she had nothing to do.
dementia
a serious mental disorder caused by brain disease or injury, that affects the ability to think, remember and behave normally
impair
to damage something or make something worse
His age impaired his chances of finding a new job.
Emotions can sometimes impair your ability to reason properly.
rodent
any small animal that belongs to a group of animals with strong sharp front teeth. Mice, rats and squirrels are all rodents.
monetary
relating to the money in a country:
monetary policy
monetary control
The monetary unit of the UK is the pound
The court prescribes monetary penalties for traffic infractions that occur within its jurisdiction
supple
able to change quickly and successfully to suit different conditions:
She has shown that she has a supple mind.
Regular yoga will help you to keep a supple form.
assess
to judge or decide the amount, value, quality, or importance of something:
The insurers will need to assess the flood damage.
constructive
having a useful and helpful effect rather than being negative or with no purpose
constructive criticism/suggestions/advice
His work involved helping hyperactive children to use their energy in a constructive way.
enrich
to improve the quality of something, often by adding something to it
enrich something The study of science has enriched all our lives.
enrich something with something Most breakfast cereals are enriched with vitamins
inquisitive
inquisitiveness
wanting to discover as much as you can about things, sometimes in a way that annoys people:
an inquisitive child
an inquisitive mind
She could see inquisitive faces looking out from the windows next door.
sanctimonious
giving the impression that you feel you are better and more moral than other people
synonym self-righteous
a sanctimonious voice
I wish she'd stop being so sanctimonious.
I'm fed up with his sanctimonious attitude
ascertain
to find out the true or correct information about something
ascertain something It can be difficult to ascertain the facts.
ascertain that... I ascertained that the driver was not badly hurt.
deem
deem something + noun/adj. | deem something to be something | deem (that)... (formal) (not usually used in the progressive tenses) to have a particular opinion about something
synonym consider
The evening was deemed a great success.
I deem it an honour to be invited.
marvel
a wonderful thing
The building is an architectural marvel.
The design is a marvel of elegance and simplicity.
pertain
pertain to somebody | pertain to something
(formal) to be connected with something/somebody
the laws pertaining to adoption
to exist or to apply in a particular situation or at a particular time
Living conditions are vastly different from those pertaining in their country of origin.
Those laws no longer pertain.
upside
the advantage of a situation:
It's annoying that we can't travel until Thursday, but the upside is that tickets are cheaper then
preserve
preserve something to keep a particular quality, feature, etc.; to make sure that something is kept
He was anxious to preserve his reputation.
Efforts to preserve the peace have failed.
dump
dump something to get rid of something you do not want, especially in a place which is not suitable
Too much toxic waste is being dumped at sea.
afloat
floating on water
Somehow we kept the boat afloat.
He could not swim and only a life jacket kept him afloat.
forceful
expressing opinions firmly and clearly in a way that persuades other people to believe them
synonym assertive
a forceful woman/speaker
a forceful personality
rampant
spreading out of control
The epidemic spread with a rampancy that was frightening
The rampant spread of epidemic make it difficult to control
the disease spread rampantly throughout the region
standpoint
He is writing from the standpoint of someone who knows what life is like in prison
bulk
in bulk

C1 in large amounts:
The office buys paper in bulk to keep down costs.
the bulk of sth

C1 most of something:
In fact, the bulk of the book is taken up with criticizing other works.
cripple
to cause serious damage to someone or something, making him, her, or it weak and not effective:
a global nursing shortage threatens to cripple health care systems
lure
lure somebody (+ adv./prep.) (disapproving) to persuade or trick somebody to go somewhere or to do something by promising them a reward
synonym entice
The child was lured into a car but managed to escape.
Young people are lured to the city by the prospect of a job and money.
rudimentary
dealing with only the most basic matters or ideas
synonym basic
They were given only rudimentary training in the job.
His understanding of the language is very rudimentary
dwindle
to become gradually less or smaller
dwindling audiences
a dwindling band of supporters
surplus
an amount that is extra or more than you need
food surpluses
Wheat was in surplus that year.
curb
curb something to control or limit something, especially something bad
synonym check
He needs to learn to curb his temper.
A range of policies have been introduced aimed at curbing inflation.
ramp
a slope that joins two parts of a road, path, building, etc. when one is higher than the other
Ramps should be provided for wheelchair users
unwieldy
difficult to manage
The first mechanical clocks were large and rather unwieldy.
The old car felt cumbersome and unwieldy.
circumspect
thinking very carefully about something before doing it, because there may be risks involved
synonym cautious
He was very circumspect in his financial affairs
circumscribe
circumscribe something (formal) to limit somebody/something's freedom, rights, power, etc.
synonym restrict
The power of the monarchy was circumscribed by the new law.
They are still highly circumscribed in their authority
impassible
(of a road, an area, etc.) impossible to travel on or through, especially because it is in bad condition or it has been blocked by something
The mountain roads are totally impassable to cars in winter.
After the storm, many roads were made impassable by fallen trees.
prodigious
very large or powerful and causing surprise or admiration
synonym colossal, enormous
a prodigious achievement/memory/talent
DVDs can store prodigious amounts of information.
inflict
to make somebody/something suffer something unpleasant
inflict something They surveyed the damage inflicted by the storm.
The rodent's sharp teeth can inflict a nasty bite
ubiquitous
seeming to be everywhere:
Leather is very much in fashion this season, as is the ubiquitous denim.
The Swedes are not alone in finding their language under pressure from the ubiquitous spread of English.
The mobile phone, that most ubiquitous of consumer-electronic appliances, is about to enter a new age.
philosophical
If you are philosophical in your reaction to something that is not satisfactory, you accept it calmly and without anger, understanding that failure and disappointment are a part of life.
gimmick
an unusual trick or unnecessary device that is intended to attract attention or to persuade people to buy something
a promotional/publicity/sales gimmick
We don't use gimmicks to sell our products.
The promise of lower taxation may have been just an election gimmick to gain votes
credentials
credentials (as/for something) the qualities, training or experience that make you suitable to do something
She has impeccable credentials as a researcher.
He has all the credentials for the job.
coarse
(of skin or cloth) rough
coarse hands/linen
opposite smooth, soft
The coarseness of the cloth irritated her skin.
I can't stand his coarseness and stupidity.
confer
confer (with somebody) (on/about something) to discuss something with somebody, consulting sb
He wanted to confer with colleagues before reaching a decision
vilify
to say or write unpleasant things about someone or something, in order to cause other people to have a bad opinion of them:
vilify somebody/something (as something) | vilify somebody/something (for something/for doing something)
He was vilified by the press as a monster.
requisite
necessary for a particular purpose
She lacks the requisite experience for the job.
They were not able to start the meeting until the requisite number of members were present
frailty
weakness and poor health
Increasing frailty meant that she was more and more confined to bed.
Despite her frailty she manages to work hard
spring up
to appear or develop quickly and/or suddenly
Play areas for children are springing up all over the place.
Opposition groups are springing up like mushrooms
centerpiece
the most important item
This treaty is the centrepiece of the government's foreign policy.
The water lily is obviously the centrepiece of any water garden.
encompass
encompass something to include a large number or range of things
The job encompasses a wide range of responsibilities.
The group encompasses all ages
token
something that is a symbol of a feeling, a fact, an event, etc.
synonym expression, mark
Please accept this small gift as a token of our gratitude.
We hope you will accept this book as a small token of our appreciation.
excavation
the activity of digging in the ground to look for old buildings or objects that have been buried for a long time
portrayal
His novel is a vivid portrayal of life in a mining community.
Much television news gives a negative portrayal of politics.
telecast
to broadcast something on television
The event will be telecast simultaneously to nearly 150 cities
strave off
stave somethingoff(staved, staved)
to prevent something bad from affecting you for a period of time; to delay something
to stave off hunger
The company managed to stave off bankruptcy for another few months
spatial
relating to space and the position, size, shape, etc. of things in it
changes taking place in the spatial distribution of the population
the development of a child's spatial awareness (= the ability to judge the positions and sizes of objects)
recur
to happen many times or to happen again:
Water, a symbol of life, recurs as an image throughout her poems.
If the symptoms recur, visit your doctor.
reroute
reroute something to change the route that a road, vehicle, telephone call, etc. normally follows
to reroute a road
to reroute traffic
The flight was rerouted through Singapore.
(figurative) A large proportion of the defence budget has been rerouted to education
rerun
to show a television programme, film, etc. again:
The James Bond movies are always being rerun on television.
outperform
to do well in a particular job or activity compared to others of a similar type:
The company has consistently outperformed its rivals this season.
boon
something that is very helpful and improves the quality of life:
Guide dogs are a great boon to the partially sighted.
confront
to face, meet, or deal with a difficult situation or person:
As she left the court, she was confronted by angry crowds who tried to block her way.
It's an issue we'll have to confront at some point, no matter how unpleasant it is.
I thought I would stay calm, but when I was confronted with/by the TV camera, I got very nervous.
massacre
the killing of a large number of people especially in a cruel way
the bloody massacre of innocent civilians
Nobody survived the massacre.
slaughter
the killing of animals for their meat
cows taken for slaughter
the cruel killing of large numbers of people at one time, especially in a war
synonym massacre
the wholesale slaughter of innocent people
herald
herald something to be a sign that something is going to happen
These talks could herald a new era of peace.
She felt a dull ache in her right temple, heralding a migraine.
Bringing the baby home heralds the start of a very different lifestyle.
budding
beginning to develop or become successful
a budding artist/writer
our budding romance
The budding young star is now hot property in Hollywood
heap
a lot of something
There's heaps of time before the plane leaves.
(North American English) I've got a heap of things to do.
heirloom
a valuable object that has belonged to the same family for many years
a family heirloom
proceeds
proceeds (of/from something) the money that you receive when you sell something or organize a performance, etc.; profits
She sold her car and bought a piano with the proceeds.
The proceeds of the concert will go to charity.
sway
sway somebody to persuade somebody to believe something or do something
synonym influence
He's easily swayed.
She wasn't swayed by his good looks or his clever talk.
power or influence over somebody
Rebel forces hold sway over much of the island.
He was quick to exploit those who fell under his sway.
garland
a circle of flowers and leaves that is worn on the head or around the neck or is hung in a room as decoration
The office was decked with garlands for the party.
attribute
attribute something to something to say or believe that something is the result of a particular thing
She attributes her success to hard work and a little luck.
to say or believe that somebody is responsible for doing something, especially for saying, writing or painting something
attribute something The committee refused to attribute blame without further information.
attribute something to somebody This play is usually attributed to Shakespeare
familiarize
familiarize yourself/somebody (with something) to learn about something or teach somebody about something, so that you/they start to understand it
synonym acquaint
You'll need time to familiarize yourself with our procedures.
The aim of the course was to familiarize students with the uses of the Internet.
work on
work on something
to try hard to improve or achieve something
You need to work on your pronunciation a bit more.
'Have you sorted out a babysitter yet?' 'No, but I'm working on it.'
integral
necessary and important as a part of a whole:
He's an integral part of the team and we can't do without him.
Bars and terrace cafés are integral to the social life of the city
immensely
extremely, enormously
He was immensely popular in his day.
She's an immensely talented young athlete
pick on
to criticize, punish, or be unkind to the same person often and unfairly:
He gets picked on by the other boys because he's so small.
erudite
having or showing great knowledge that is gained from academic study
synonym learned
She could turn any conversation into an erudite discussion.
She was a well-respected and erudite scholar
disconcerting
having or showing great knowledge that is gained from academic study
synonym learned
She could turn any conversation into an erudite discussion.
She was a well-respected and erudite scholaro
menacing
seeming likely to cause you harm or danger
synonym threatening
a menacing face/tone
At night, the dark streets become menacing.
typify
typify something to be a typical example of something
clothes that typify the 1960s
the new style of politician, typified by the Prime Minister
dramatize
dramatize (something) to make something seem more exciting or important than it really is
Don't worry too much about what she said—she tends to dramatize things.
frontier
] frontier (of something) the limit of something, especially the limit of what is known about a particular subject or activity
to push back the frontiers of science (= to increase knowledge of science)
to roll back the frontiers of government (= to limit the powers of the government)
microbe
an extremely small living thing that you can only see under a microscope and that may cause diseasein
menace
an individual or situation that causes problems
My neighbor's dog is a menace who seems to enjoy going potty on my porch.
In the summer, ants can be a real menace in the kitchen
inaugurate
inaugurate something to officially open a building or start an organization with a special ceremony
The new theatre was inaugurated by the mayor.
The assembly was formally inaugurated in December.
consent
permission or agreement:
They can't publish your name without your consent.
You can only come on the trip if your parents give their consent.
by common consent

most people agree:
Her latest novel, by common consent, is her best yet.
dent
Cheap goods from overseas could severely dent the company's sales.
The appearance of these cheap goods from abroad has severely dented the company's sales.
The car was quite badly dented on one side.
morale
to boost/raise/improve morale
Morale amongst the players is very high at the moment.
Staff are suffering from low morale.
Another win would be good for the team's morale.