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Some foods made with refined grains can contain more of some nutrients and less of others than foods made from whole grains
glucose: sucrose: insoluble fiber
Which of the following represents a monosaccharide: disaccharide: complex carbohydrate?
The undigested lactose in the intestine draws water and bacteria
Why does someone who has lactose intolerance have gastrointestinal problems, such as gas, cramping, and diarrhea?
The glycemic index is a measure of how quickly and how high blood glucose levels rise after carbohydrates are consumed
the rise in blood glucose levels after eating stimulates the pancreas to secrete the hormone ___, causing blood glucose levels to ____.
compared to anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrate, aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates produces _____ ATP molecules for each glucose molecule
When there is not sufficient carbohydrate to completely metabolize fatty acids, these molecules form:
the reactions that break them down produce two-carbon molecules
Fatty acids cannot be used to make glucose because:
Normal blood glucose level is expected to be less than ____ milligrams/100 milliliters of blood after an 8-hour fast.
Weight gain is caused by excess intake of calories, regardless of whether those calories come from carbohydrates, fat, or protein
The amount of carbohydrate required to meet energy needs, provide adequate glucose, and prevent ketosis is ____ grams per day
The sports drink G2 has 17 grams of carbohydrate in a 20 oz bottle. How many calories does this provide from carbohydrate?
Absorption of water-soluble vitamins
Which of the following is not a function of lipids in the body?
higher in the amounts of omega-6 versus omega-3 fatty acids for optimal health
The typical American diet has a ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids that is:
splits fatty acids into two-carbon units that form acetyl-CoA and releases high-energy electrons
Macrophages form -> LDLs migrate to artery wall -> secreted chemicals promote an inflammatory process
In regard to the development of atherosclerosis, which of the following represent the correct sequence of events?
Cholesterol and HDL
Gary had the following blood levels: cholesterol 245, HDL 35, LDL 99. Which of these blood lipid levels put him at risk?
Whole grain toast with honey
Based on the type of fat found in the following foods, which would be the healthiest choice from the grains group?
Elise is trying to manage her blood cholesterol, she she wants to purchase some crackers that do not have saturated fat in them. Which oil, if it appears in the ingredient list, should she avoid?
to deliver cholesterol, LDL particles bind to a protein on the cell membrane called an LDL receptor
Trans fatty acids do not only raise LDL cholesterol levels but are also believed to increase the risk of breast cancer
Individuals need a greater number of grams daily of linoleic acid than alpha-linolenic acid for optimal health
If the diet is deficient in one or more of the ___ amino acids, the body must break down existing proteins to provide the amino acids
when salivary amylase enters the stomach, the acid causes the structure of this enzyme to change so that is is no longer able to function. This change in structure is called
The amino acids from the supplement will compete with each other, slowing absorption of other amino acids
Which of the following scenarios is a possibility if an amino acid supplement overwhelms the amino acid transport system?
during the synthesis of a protein, a shortage of one amino acid will not stop synthesis, but two or more missing amino acids will impact protein synthesis negatively
transcription - mRNA takes genetic code to ribosomes - translation
which of the following represents the correct sequence of steps that occur in protein synthesis?
protein molecules consumed in the diet and from the breakdown of body proteins
The amino acid pool is comprised of the
Because our bodies do not store protein, functional body proteins, such as enzymes and muscle proteins, must be broken down to yield amino acids
Marasmus is a form of malnutrition that negatively impacts which of the following developing organs the worst?
a high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol
as validated by evidence-based research, the major health concern with high-protein diets is
endurance and strength athletes have a greater protein daily recommendation than non-athletes; therefore, they must use amino acid supplements
protein ____ is a measure of how good the protein in food is at providing the essential amino acids the body needs
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