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Drain alveoli and converge on nipples (Iike wheel spokes). Only one duct leads to nipple.
Infections resulting from pathogenic organisms. Transmitted from another person (like STDs).
Ductus (vas) Deferens
Tube that connects the epididymus and abdominal cavity (by way of inguinal canal). Thick, smooth, muscular, moveable tube. Vascectomy is performed here.
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding. Hormone imbalance or structural problem. 29% of hysterectomies are because of this.
Abscence of normal menstration. Primary - failure of menstration to even begin. Secondary- menses slows to 3 or fewer a year.
Menstral Cramps, 75-80% of all women. Caused by overproduction of prostglandins in inner lining of uterus. Primary - adolescents and young women. Secondary - pelvic pathology, other reproductive organs are usually involved.
Female sex cell. 1 matures each month (on average). On day 1-7 of menstral cycle; anterior pituitary gland secrets increasing amounts of FSH, which stimulates LH causing maturing of follicle and ovum.
Phases of menstration
1. menses- 4-5 days of bleeding. 2. Proliferation -blood flow ends, lasts till ovulation, follicles mature, uterine lining thickens, ESTROGEN at highest level. 3. Secretory - Begins at ovulation, ends at menses, highest PROGESTERONE, lining is at its thickest.
Egg (ova) is released. Occurs 14 days BEFORE menses. When fertilization occurs. Women are fertile for only a few days each month around ovulation.
2 pairs of exocrine glands embedded in tissue to the left and right of vaginal outlets, release into the vulva. 1 pair is called the greater vestibular (Bartholin Glands) they lubricate. Other pair is called the lesser vestibular.
Hormone stimulated by anterior pituitary. Produced by the Corpus luteum. Secreted for 11 days after ovulation. Stimulates destruction and vascularization of epithileal lining of uterus. Acts with estrogen to initiate menstrual cycle at puberty. Highest in the Secretory phase.
Hormone stimulated by anterior pituatary. Produced in ovaries from granulosa cells around oocyte. Causes breast development, menstation, pubic hair, during puberty. Highest in the proliferation phase.
Hormone secreting glandular structure that secretes mostly Progestrone, some Estrogen.
Paired glands weighing about 3g each. Resemble large almonds. Attached to ligaments in pelvic cavity on each side of uterus.
Microscopic structure of ovaries
Ovarian follicles - contains oocyte, which is an immature sex cell (about 1 million at birth). Primary follicles - about 400,000 at puberty are covered with ganulosa cells. Mature follicles - about 350-500 mature follicles ovulate during the reproductive lifetime of women. Secondary follicles, have a hollow chamber called antrum. Corpus luteum forms after ovulation.
Occurs during the process of meosis. Two cell divisions during meosis, one remains a spermatocyte, the other becomes the primary spermatocyte.
Congenital condition where the opening of the urethral meatus is on the underside of the glans or penile shaft.
(Also called Cowper glands) Inferior to prostate. Resembles peas, lubricates. Produces 5% of seminal fluid.
Donut shaped gland below the urinary bladder. Secretes thin milk colored fluid. Produces 30% of seminal fluid, this fluid protects sperm.
Fluid filled sacs, usually benign. 2 types: Follicular (most common), Luteal (most symptomatic). Most resolve in 60 days
Male Accesorry of Supportive Sex Glands
SEMEN - 3-5ml, 100 million sperm. SEMINAL VESICLES - pouchlike, 60% of seminal fluid, rich in fructose. PROSTATE GLAND - donut shaped, 30% of fluid. BULBOURETHRAL GLAND (COWPER) - pea shaped, 5% of fluid, lubricates uretha.
Male sex hormone. Secreted in the interstitial cells of the testes. Masculinizes, promotes and maintains male accessory organs, stimulates anabolism.
During a women's reproductive years, 350-500 are produced. They are produced from primary follicles. These follicles release an ovum for potential fertilization during ovulation.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Fluid-filled cysts that effect 10% of women. Most common cause of infertility.
Male essential sex organ. Surrounded by Tunica Albugineus. Bulk mass is from a narrow coiled structure called Seminiferous tubule, this is divided by interstitial cells that secret testostrone.
Bulk of testicular mass. Long duct with central lumen. Sperm develop in the walls then are release into lumen.
Produces one spermatoza and one primary spermatozoa, primary spermatozoa forms four spermatids with 23 chromosomes each.
Sperm precursor cells. FSH hormone causes spermatogonia to divide at puberty. Increase the number of sperm stem cells in testes before puberty to prepare for mature sperm (46 chromosomes).
Covers sperm head, contains enzymes that enable the sperm to break down the covering of the ovum.
Tightly coiled comma shaped tube that lies along the top and behind the testes inside the scrotum. Sperm mature and develop their ability to move, or swim as they pass through here.
ductus (vas) deferns
Tube that permist sperm to exit the epididymis and pass from the scotal sac upward into the abdominal cavity. Thick, smooth, very muscular.
Pathogens that normally inhabit the intestines, vulva or vagina. These organisms are in or on the body.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Inflammation of uterus, uterine tube, or ovaries. Caused by infection. Major cause of infertility and sterility. Can be a complication of gonococca and chlamidia. Can cause scarring.
Male essential and accessory organs
ESSENTIAL - Testes. ACCESSORY - Ducts (2) epididymis (2) vas deferns (2) ejaculatory duct (2) urethra. SUPPORTIVE - (2) Seminal vesicles (2) bulbourethral (cowper) glands (1) Prostate Gland. EXTERNAL GENITALS - scrotum and penis
Behind bladder, small, pear shaped, almost like a muscle. BODY - middle portion, FUNDUS - above body, connects to uterine tubes, CERVIX - lower, neck like protion. UTERUS WALL - Endometrium (inner, vascular, lost in menstruation) Perimetrium (or epimetrium) (outer) Myometrium (middle, muscular, continuation of abdominal cavity).
Outer end of uterine tubes. Funnel-shaped, fringe-like projections. Curve over the top of each ovary.
Female Essential organ. Resembles large almond, attached to ligaments in the pelvic cavity on each side of uterus.
First 4 or 5 days of menstral cycle. Bleeding caused by sloughing off of bits of endometirum. First day of flow is day 1 of menstral cycle.
Days between the end of menses and ovulation. Characterized by repair of endometrium. ESTROGEN at highest level. Follicles mature, lining thickens.
Ovulation till menses. It is during this phase of the menstrual cycle that the uterine lining is thickest, and progestrone level is highest.
Greater (Bartholin) and lesser vestibular glands. Secrete mucus into vestibule of vulva.
Over pectoral muscles of thorax, size determined by fat, lactiferous ducts drain at nipples, surrounded by areola.
Produce, store, and ultimately introduce mature sperm into the female reproductive tract.
Female Reproductive System
Receives the sperm, permits fertilization, develops and gives birth to baby, produces lactation.
Prostae-specific antigen, a substance sometimes found in the blood of men with prostate cancer. A blood test is done to check for this antigen.
Female Reproductive organs
ESSENTIAL - Ovaries, ACCESSORY - Ducts, Uterine tubes (2), uterus, vagina, ACCESSORY GLANDS - vestibular glans (2 pairs) Breasts. EXTERNAL GENITALS - vulva
Consists of; mons pubis, clitoris, external urinary meatus, labia minora, hymmen, opening of ducts of vestibular glands, orifice of vagina, labia majora.
mixture of sperm and secretions of accessory sex glands (60% Seminal vessicles, 30% prostate, 5% Bulborethral gland.
A pregancy resulting from the implantation of a fertilized ovum in any location other than the uterus.
Difference between seminal vesicles and seminiferous tubule
vesicles SECRETE seminal fluid (60%). Sperm are produced in the walls of the tubule.
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