79 terms

Eloquence

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Polyptoton
Repeated use of one word as different parts of speech - please please me
Talk the talk
One small step for "a" man giant step for mankind
Antithesis
A union of opposites into a pleasing whole
For better for worse
You're up then you're down
Merism
Don't say what you're talking about just its parts
Night and day (all the time)
Better or worse (all the time)
Man and woman (people)
Synaesthesia
One sense is described in terms of another
Smelled like victory
Aposiopesis
Silence often represented by ...
Because 1) can't go on 2) don't need to go on 3) want to leave them laughing
When in Rome...
Hyperbaton
Odd syntax - word order
IAO never other way tit for tat not tat for tit
On play
Out look!
"This is the kind of English up with which I will not put" Churchill
Anadiplosis
Repetition of last word in one clause as first word of the next
Yoda: fear leads to anger, anger leads to hatred, hatred leads to suffering
Periodic sentence
Big sentence not "complete" until the end
"Every breath you take, every move you make... I'll be watching you"-Police
Parataxis
Natural way of speaking. Plain English.
It's one sentence. Then it's another sentence. It's direct.
Polysyndeton
Using lots of conjunctions.
And this, and that, and everything.
Asyndeton
No conjunctions
" Take, eat, this is my body" -Christ
Hypotaxis
Long, complicated sentences. Unnatural in spoken English- makes prose "civilized"
Diacope
Word or phrase repeated after interruption
"Bond, James Bond"
"Run Forest, run"
" Alone, alone, all all alone" Coleridge
"To be or not to be"
Rhetorical question
A question that requires no answer
"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?"
Subjectio
Making you answer a series of rhetorical questions to which they already know answer belittles you and asserts authority over you
"Is there a reason you were speeding? Do you think the limit doesn't apply to you?"
Aporia
Asking a question when you really don't know the answer
Will you still love me tomorrow"
Hendiadys
Tricky term because you can't know what author intended.
Law and order
Noisy city vs noise and the city
Epistrophe
End each sentence /clause/paragraph with the same word.
Tricolon
Pattern of three (that you can often break for effect)
It's a bird. It's a plane. It's superman.
Eat, drink, and be merry
Father, son, a holy ghost
Syllepsis
One word used in incongruous ways.
"Blow your nose not your mind"
Isocolon
Two clauses that are grammatically parallel and structurally the same.
Roses are red. Violets are blue.
Enallage
Deliberate grammatical mistake.
Listen Kurtz-he dead.-Conrad
Hope springs eternal in the human breast-Pope
Epizeuxis
Repeat a word immediately in exactly the same sense.
Location, location, location.
Paradox
Using opposites to make a point.
Sound of silence
First shall be last
Cruel to be kind
Chiasmus
Careful artificial symmetry. Inversion of the words gives inversion of thought too.
Tea for two two for tea
Judge not, that Ute be not judged
Catachresis
Sentence so wrong that it's right
Speak daggers.
Lay a whisper on my pillow.
Litotes
Understatement by negative.
She's not uncommon.
It's not impossible
Metonymy
Physical representation becomes the thing.
The suits make decisions.
Fight for the crown.
Synecdoche
Part is for the whole.
Going to jump in my wheels.
Face that launched a thousand ships
Boots on the ground—refers to soldiers
Transferred epithet
Adjective applied too the wrong noun.
Smoked a nervous cigarette. Clumsy helmets. Plods his weary way. The most unkindest cut off all.
Pleonasm
Unnecessary words. Repeating the same thing.
Dearly beloved
Gathered together
Join together
Fall down
A rose is a rose is a rose
Epanalepsis
Circulatory and continuation.
The king is dead, long live the king.
Nothing comes of nothing.
Adynaton
Something that is impossible.
Pigs will fly
Hell will freeze over
Blood from a stone
Prolepsis
Using a pronoun before the noun.
They **** you up, your mum and dad. They may not mean to, but they do.-larkin
Congeries
List of adjectives or nouns
Scesis onomaton
Leaving out the verb.
Space: the final frontier.
London: the eternal city.
Anaphora
Repetition of the same (s)
If... If... If Kipling
We shall fight we shall fight them... Churchill
Peroration
Concluding part of a speech. Highly rhetorical speech
three categories for fallacies
emotional, logical, and ethical
moral equivalence
assuming something has the same moral level as something else when they don't; example: Eating babies to fix starvation
Red herring
Attempting to redirect the argument to another issue that to which the person doing the redirecting can better respond. While it is similar to the avoiding the issue fallacy, the red herring is a deliberate diversion of attention with the intention of trying to abandon the original argument.
Circular reasoning
A type of reasoning in which the proposition is supported by the premises, which is supported by the proposition, creating a circle in reasoning where no useful information is being shared. This fallacy is often quite humorous.
Bandwagon
You appealed to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation.
Consonance
repetition of consonant sounds (sh and ch, etc.)
Assonance
repetition of vowel sounds
Antimetabole
reverse structure of a sentence while keeping the words the same. Example: "Fair is foul and foul is fair." Macbeth, Shakespeare
"Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country." "Inaugural Address," John F. Kennedy
oxymoron
a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction (e.g., faith unfaithful kept him falsely true ).
Rogerian argument
a conflict solving technique based on finding common ground instead of polarizing debate.
analogical argument
is an explicit representation of a form of analogical reasoning that cites accepted similarities between two systems to support the conclusion that some further similarity exists.
analogy
a comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification.
idiom
an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements, as kick the bucket or hang one's head, or from the general grammatical rules of a language, as the table round for the round table, and that is not a constituent of a larger expression of like characteristics.
colloquial
used in ordinary or familiar conversation; not formal or literary
antonomasia
the substitution of an epithet or title for a proper name (e.g., the Bard for Shakespeare).
anastrophe
the inversion of the usual order of words or clauses. Example: Excited the children were when Santa entered the room.
epiplexis
a rhetorical device in which the speaker reproaches the audience in order to incite or convince them
zeugma
a figure of speech in which a word applies to two others in different senses (e.g., John and his license expired last week ) or to two others of which it semantically suits only one (e.g., with weeping eyes and hearts ).
hypophora
a figure of speech in which a writer raises a question and then immediately provides an answer to that question. Commonly, a question is asked in the first paragraph and then the paragraph is used to answer the question. It is also known as antipophora or anthypophora.
Rhetorical question immediately answered aloud
"Can I kick it? Yes, you can"
anthimeria
a rhetorical term for the creation of a neologism by using one part of speech (or word class) in place of another. For example, in the slogan for Turner Classic Movies, "Let's Movie," the noun movie is used as a verb.
pedantic
a term used to describe writing that borders on lecturing. It is scholarly and academic and often overly difficult
jargonistic
special words or expressions that are used by a particular profession or group and are difficult for others to understand.
juxtaposition
When two words, phrases, images, ideas are placed close together or side by side for comparison or contrast. Ex: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way..."
malapropism
refers to the practice of misusing words by substituting words with similar sounding words that have different, often unconnected meanings, and thus creating a situation of confusion, misunderstanding and amusement.
Hyperbole
exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.
Orotund Language
marked by fullness, strength, and clarity of sound
Idiomatic
is a phrase or a fixed expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning
didactic
intended to teach, particularly in having moral instruction as an ulterior motive.
ethos
an appeal to ethics, and it is a means of convincing someone of the character or credibility of the persuader
Pathos
an appeal to emotion, and is a way of convincing an audience of an argument by creating an emotional response.
Logos
an appeal to logic, and is a way of persuading an audience by reason.
antecedent
word or phrase to which pronoun refers to
brevity
concise and exact use of words in writing or speech.
metaphor
a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
""I had fallen through a trapdoor of depression," said Mark, who was fond of theatrical metaphors"
simile
a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid (e.g., as brave as a lion, crazy like a fox ).
satire
a technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society by using humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule.
anecdotal
(of an account) not necessarily true or reliable, because based on personal accounts rather than facts or research.
anecdote
a short and amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person.
ellipsis
the omission of one or more words, which must be supplied by the listener or reader.
allegory
a symbolism device where the meaning of a greater, often abstract, concept is conveyed with the aid of a more corporeal object or idea being used as an example.
cynicism
an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest; skepticism.