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56 terms

Chapter 42: Circulation and Gas Exchange

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nutrients, gases, wastes
What materials can be exchanged over circulatory systems?
open
the type of circulatory system of arthropods and molluscs
closed
the type of circulatory system in vertebrates
arteries
these vessels carry blood away from the heart
veins
these vessels carry blood toward the heart
arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
order of blood flow when originating at the heart
capillaries
vessels that infiltrate tissues in networks
atria
parts of the heart that receive blood
ventricles
parts of the heart that pump blood out of the heart
pulmocutaneous circuit
a system in three-chambered hearts that forms a forked artery and leads to the lungs and skin
systemic circuit
a part of the circulatory system which carries blood to the rest of the body and back to the right atrium
pulmonary circuit
a part of the circulatory system that is responsible for gas exchange in the lungs
rich
the left side of the heart contains blood that is oxygen _____
poor
the right side of the heart contains blood that is oxygen _____
systole
the period during which the mammalian heart pumps blood
diastole
the period during which the mammalian heart relaxes, allowing the heart chambers to fill with blood
atrioventricular valves
parts of the heart between each atrium and ventricle that are snapped shut when blood is forced against them as the ventricles contract
semilunar valves
parts of the heart at the exit of the aorta and pulmonary artery that are forced open by ventricular contraction, and close when the ventricles relax
sinoatrial node
the pacemaker of the heart; located in the right atrium
atrioventricular node
the part of the heart that relays the impulse of the SA node
hemolymph
body fluid found in sinuses or spaces between organs that bathes the internal tissues, providing for chemical exchange
outer connective tissue, middle muscle, inner lining of endothelium
the layers of an artery or vein wall
endothelium
a single layer of flattened cells
capillaries
these vessels have a slow velocity for blood flow
veins
these vessels have a fast velocity for blood flow
systolic pressure
pressure created from the force exerted against the wall of a blood vessel during systole
diastolic pressure
pressure created by the recoiling of the stretched elastic arteries during diastole
vasconstriction
the contraction of smooth muscles in arteriole walls; increases resistance, thus increases blood pressure
vasodilation
the relaxation of smooth muscles in arteriole walls; decreases resistance, thus decreases blood pressure
endothelin
a peptide produced and secreted by endothelial cells that induces vasoconstriction
plasma
a liquid matrix that makes up about 55% of blood; consists of a large variety of solutes dissolved in water
erythrocytes
cells that transport oxygen; red blood cells; lack mitochondria and generate ATP by anaerobic metabolism
leukocytes
white blood cells that fight infections
platelets
pinched-off fragments of large cells in the bone marrow that are involved in blood clotting
fibrin
the active form of the protein fibrinogen that helps to blot blood
thrombus
a clot of blood that occurs within a blood vessel and blocks the flow of blood
erythropoietin
a hormone that is produced by the kidney in response to low oxygen supply in tissues
atherosclerosis
a disease in which plaque narrows the arteries, thereby restricting blood flow
heart attack
the blockage of coronary arteries that leads to death of cardiac muscle
stroke
the blockage or rupturing of arteries in the head
LDL
the type of cholesterol that is associated with deposits in plaques
HDL
the type of cholesterol that is appear to reduce cholesterol deposition in plaques
hypertension
the condition of high blood pressure; is thought to damage the endothelium and initiate plaque formation
partial pressure
a measurement of the concentration of a gas in air or dissolved in water
higher; lower
a gas will diffuse from a region of ________ partial pressure to a region of ________ partial pressure
ventilation
movement of the respiratory medium across the respiratory surface
countercurrent exchange
an arrangement in which the diffusion gradient favors the movement of oxygen into the blood along the length of the capillary
tracheal systems
tiny air tubes, which branch throughout the body and come into contact with nearly every cell
lungs
invaginated respiratory surfaces restricted to one location from which oxygen is transported by the circulatory system
positive-pressure breathing
a type of breathing that lowers the floor of the oral cavity, expanding it and drawing air into the mouth; used by amphibians
negative-pressure breathing
a type of breathing that uses the lungs; used by mammals
tidal volume
the volume of air inhaled and exhaled by an animal during normal breathing
vital capacity
the maximum volume during forced breathing
residual volume
the air that remains in the alveoli and lungs after forceful exhaling
lower
hemoglobin releases more oxygen in tissues with a _______ amount of oxygen
myoglobin
an oxygen-storing muscle protein