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nutrients, gases, wastes

What materials can be exchanged over circulatory systems?


the type of circulatory system of arthropods and molluscs


the type of circulatory system in vertebrates


these vessels carry blood away from the heart


these vessels carry blood toward the heart

arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins

order of blood flow when originating at the heart


vessels that infiltrate tissues in networks


parts of the heart that receive blood


parts of the heart that pump blood out of the heart

pulmocutaneous circuit

a system in three-chambered hearts that forms a forked artery and leads to the lungs and skin

systemic circuit

a part of the circulatory system which carries blood to the rest of the body and back to the right atrium

pulmonary circuit

a part of the circulatory system that is responsible for gas exchange in the lungs


the left side of the heart contains blood that is oxygen _____


the right side of the heart contains blood that is oxygen _____


the period during which the mammalian heart pumps blood


the period during which the mammalian heart relaxes, allowing the heart chambers to fill with blood

atrioventricular valves

parts of the heart between each atrium and ventricle that are snapped shut when blood is forced against them as the ventricles contract

semilunar valves

parts of the heart at the exit of the aorta and pulmonary artery that are forced open by ventricular contraction, and close when the ventricles relax

sinoatrial node

the pacemaker of the heart; located in the right atrium

atrioventricular node

the part of the heart that relays the impulse of the SA node


body fluid found in sinuses or spaces between organs that bathes the internal tissues, providing for chemical exchange

outer connective tissue, middle muscle, inner lining of endothelium

the layers of an artery or vein wall


a single layer of flattened cells


these vessels have a slow velocity for blood flow


these vessels have a fast velocity for blood flow

systolic pressure

pressure created from the force exerted against the wall of a blood vessel during systole

diastolic pressure

pressure created by the recoiling of the stretched elastic arteries during diastole


the contraction of smooth muscles in arteriole walls; increases resistance, thus increases blood pressure


the relaxation of smooth muscles in arteriole walls; decreases resistance, thus decreases blood pressure


a peptide produced and secreted by endothelial cells that induces vasoconstriction


a liquid matrix that makes up about 55% of blood; consists of a large variety of solutes dissolved in water


cells that transport oxygen; red blood cells; lack mitochondria and generate ATP by anaerobic metabolism


white blood cells that fight infections


pinched-off fragments of large cells in the bone marrow that are involved in blood clotting


the active form of the protein fibrinogen that helps to blot blood


a clot of blood that occurs within a blood vessel and blocks the flow of blood


a hormone that is produced by the kidney in response to low oxygen supply in tissues


a disease in which plaque narrows the arteries, thereby restricting blood flow

heart attack

the blockage of coronary arteries that leads to death of cardiac muscle


the blockage or rupturing of arteries in the head


the type of cholesterol that is associated with deposits in plaques


the type of cholesterol that is appear to reduce cholesterol deposition in plaques


the condition of high blood pressure; is thought to damage the endothelium and initiate plaque formation

partial pressure

a measurement of the concentration of a gas in air or dissolved in water

higher; lower

a gas will diffuse from a region of ________ partial pressure to a region of ________ partial pressure


movement of the respiratory medium across the respiratory surface

countercurrent exchange

an arrangement in which the diffusion gradient favors the movement of oxygen into the blood along the length of the capillary

tracheal systems

tiny air tubes, which branch throughout the body and come into contact with nearly every cell


invaginated respiratory surfaces restricted to one location from which oxygen is transported by the circulatory system

positive-pressure breathing

a type of breathing that lowers the floor of the oral cavity, expanding it and drawing air into the mouth; used by amphibians

negative-pressure breathing

a type of breathing that uses the lungs; used by mammals

tidal volume

the volume of air inhaled and exhaled by an animal during normal breathing

vital capacity

the maximum volume during forced breathing

residual volume

the air that remains in the alveoli and lungs after forceful exhaling


hemoglobin releases more oxygen in tissues with a _______ amount of oxygen


an oxygen-storing muscle protein

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