ETHICS STUDY GUIDE 2
Terms in this set (60)
The story of the Ring of Gyges suggests that when people are free to do whatever they want without consequences, they tend to behave
Psychological egoism is the theory that
Everything people do is fundamentally motivated by self-interest.
A direct desire to benefit others for their own sake.
Psychological egoism is
A descriptive theory of human motivation.
A psychological egoist would claim that giving up on something you want for the sake of a loved one
Is actually a self-interested action.
The case of the invisible hair elves is meant to show that
It is a mistake to hold a view as immune from refutation by evidence.
According to the text, the evidence available
*Suggests, but does not prove, that psychological egoism is FALSE
Why isn't psychological egoism considered an ethical theory?
It aims to tell us how we do behave, not how we should behave.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between psychological egoism and ethics?
*The truth of psychological egoism would mean that (most of what we take for granted about morality would be mistaken)
If one cannot conceive of any evidence that would refute psychological egoism, what does this suggest about the theory?
The theory is not being held rationally
What would the psychological egoist say about someone who acts to avoid a guilty conscience?
Such a person acts out of (self-interest desire to avoid guilt)
According to ethical egoism, conflicts between self-interest and morality
According to libertarianism, all of our duties derive from
Consent and reparation
If libertarianism is true, then
Ethics egoism is false.
According to the text, what's wrong with the best argument for ethical egoism?
Sometimes we have reason to do things that will gain us nothing.
If ethical egoism is true, then I should regard the interest of others as having
No moral importance
What is ethical egoism?
The theory that (actions are morally right just because they promote one's self-interest)
Which one the following is a problem for ethical egoism?
It violates core moral beliefs.
A family of ethical theories that includes utilitarianism.
Consequentialism states that an action is right if and only if
It maximizes the amount of goodness in the world.
The principle of utility can be summarized as
Maximize overall well-being.
John Stuart thought that the only intrinsically valuable thing is
According to utilitarianism, gaining moral knowledge
Requires (accurately predicting the outcomes of one's actions)
Most utilitarianisms believe that the morality of an action depends on
It's actual results
According to utilitarianism
There is no essential connection
Utilitarians believe in
Only one absolute moral rule: the principle of utility.
What does it mean to say a policy is optimific?
It yields the greatest balance of benefits over drawbacks.
According to the text, a slippery slope argument is
An argument which (criticizes something on the grounds that that thing will lead to terrible results)
According to utilitarianism, harming a human being is
In and of itself (not any better or worse than harming a non-human animal)
According to utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham, what is the relevant question for determining membership in the moral community?
Can they suffer?
According to the text, what do most utilitarians believe about conventional moral wisdom?
Conventional morality is mistaken in some ways but is mostly correct.
What attitude do most utilitarians take towards non-human animals?
If an animal sufferedto the same extent as a human, the animals suffering is equally important.
What does it mean for you to be a member of the moral community?
That you are morally (important for your own right)
The golden rule fails to give any guidance concerning
In Kant's theory, a maxim is
A principle of action that gives one to oneself.
According to Kant, an action is morally acceptable if and only if
It's maxim is universalizable
Kant claims that the morality of an action depends on
Kant claimed that
Acting immorally is always irrational.
An amoralist is
*Sometime who believes in morality but does not care about it at all
According to Kant, the demands of morality are
The principle of universalizability does not account for the immortality of
According to Kant, what is the main problem with the golden rule?
It makes morality depend on a person's desires.
Which of the following best characterizes Kant's moral theory?
It is inconsistent with consequentialism.
What is a categorical imperative, according to Kant?
A command of reason that does NOT depend on our desires.
What is a hypothetical imperative, according to Kant?
A command of reason that DOES depends on our desires.
What did Kant believe is the relationship between rationality and morality?
Rationality requires us to be moral.
Which of the following did Kant believe to be the central moral virtue?
To have integrity is to
Act in harmony with the principles you believe in
The Amoralist's Challenge is a direct challenge to what?
Kant's claim that immoral conduct is irrantional.
According to Kant, moral requirements apply to
All who possess reason.
According to Kant, the only thing that is valuable in all circumstances sis
The good will
Kant believed that it is possible to be motivated
From an understanding of our own moral duty, without any desire or emotion.
In Kant's view, your action has moral worth if and only if
You do it because you understand that is it the right thing to do.
In order to determine what people deserve, Kant recommended that we consult
The principles of lex talionis.
Something is a case of moral luck if
The morality of one's action (depends on factors outside of one's control)
Limiting he liberty of others for THEIR own good.
According to Kant, under what conditions is punishment always unjust?
When the criminal is not autonomous.
According to Kant's theory, non-human animals
Have no moral rights.
Which of the following is Kant's principle of humanity?
*Always treat a human being as an end, never as a mere means.
Which of the following claims, if true, would refute Kant's theory?
People are not autonomous.
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