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Biology 1102 Final Practice
Terms in this set (115)
Bile assists in the chemical digestion of triglycerides by:
Emulsifying large fat droplets into tiny ones, providing more surface area for enzymes.
The layer of the GI tract wall that is responsible for motility is the:
Damage to which of the following organs might have the biggest impact on your ability to break down fats?
In Biology, form meets function. Which of the following organs in the digestive system would you expect to have numerous folds and projections that increase its surface area (think about how having increased surface area would be advantageous)?
In an attempt to get organized after final exams, you clean out your apartment. While doing so, you take everything out of your desk drawer, get rid of things you don't need, and only put a few necessary items (about 1%) back in the drawer. This is analogous to what your ___________ does in the body.
The process by which food is propelled through the digestive tract by alternating contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle is:
Living in a desert environment means that you must be able to efficiently conserve water. Which of the following organs is responsible for conserving water?
Bile is produced by the ________ and stored in the ________.
Pepsin is a digestive enzyme that specifically targets:
The region where 65-70% of the water in the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed into the blood is:
The hormone ADH:
Causes the cells of the collecting duct to be more permeable to (absorb more) water.
Consider a red blood cell traveling in the renal artery. It passes through several different functional vessels before entering the renal vein. Consider the vessels listed below. Which one of the following answers lists the CORRECT order in which the red blood cell passes through these vessels?
1 - peritubular capillaries
2 - efferent arteriole
3 - afferent arteriole
4 - glomerulus
5 - renal vein
3, 4, 2, 1, 5
The kidneys function to maintain homeostasis in all of the following ways EXCEPT which one?
Exchanging blood gases.
A person who suffers from diabetes insipidus, the symptoms of which include dehydration and excessive urination, has _______secretion of the _________ hormone.
When blood sugar is high after a meal, there should be a release of ________ .
Insufficient production of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary may result in:
Nonsteroid hormones differ from steroid hormones in that they:
Bind to a receptor on the outer surface.
According to one of the videos you watched this week, the Nervous System is to gmail as the Endocrine System is to:
The testes of men function as endocrine organs by producing:
The ovaries of women function as endocrine organs by producing:
Estrogen and Progesterone
When you close your eyes at night, the pineal gland gives off __________, a hormone that allows us to manage our circadian rhythm.
Hormones act upon specific target cells because:
Target cells display the appropriate receptor for a particular hormone.
Steroid hormones bind to receptors in the nucleus to activate or deactivate genes.
In order for all hormones to cause a response, they must first bind to an appropriate receptor on the target cell's membrane.
When oxytocin is released during childbirth, the hormone targets cells in the:
Why does it take awhile to calm down after experiencing stress/panic?
The hormones that have been coursing through your body first have to stop being released, and then your body has to break them down.
A man driving through his neighborhood suddenly jams on his car brakes to avoid hitting a child who runs into the road after a ball. A few seconds later, the driver finds that he is shaking and his heart is pounding. This is primarily due to the secretion of which one of the following?
Epinephrine from the adrenal medulla.
FSH is a hormone important to the proper functioning of the ovaries and testes. This hormone will not be released from the anterior pituitary until ________ is released from the hypothalamus.
A tumor growing on the ____________
pituitary gland may result in a person growing to extreme heights, in excess of 7 feet tall!
When does the pancreas stop secreting insulin?
What is the The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis?
It is an example of a hormone cascade whereby hormones affect the release of other hormones, which in turn affect the release of other hormones. It is known as the "fight or flight" response.
A neuron at rest has a charge difference across its cell membrane, with the interior of the cell negative relative to the exterior. This difference in charge across the plasma membrane is referred to as ________ potential.
Which one of the following cells transmit impulses away from the central nervous system to the muscles and other organs?
Information coming into the central nervous system arrives via _____ while information going from the central nervous system to the muscles, glands, and organs travels via ______.
Sensory Neurons/Motor Neurons
What event at the axon terminals is stimulated by the action potential?
The release of a neurotransmitter into the synapse.
By which one of the following methods is a stronger stimulus coded by neurons differently from a weaker stimulus?
A stronger stimulus results in more action potentials/unit time.
Which one of the following divisions of the nervous system predominates during the relaxed state?
Most addictive drugs impact the release of which neurotransmitter in the brain's pleasure center?
Which one of the following establishes and maintains the resting potential?
Sodium Potassium Pump
Nerve cells communicate with one another at a junction called a:
The nervous system has certain characteristics that set it apart from the endocrine system. Which one of the following characteristics is typical of the endocrine system, but NOT the nervous system?
The agents of communication are always in the form of a chemical.
Which one of the following activities would be facilitated by the sympathetic nervous system?
Increased blood pressure.
Researchers at Northwestern University were able to rewire a monkey's brain by installing a computer chip. The significance of this research is that:
This method could help reestablish lost connections between different motor areas in our brain.
Events of action potential propagation with when they occur on the graph.
Which structure is C?
Which of the following accurately describes the effects of cocaine on the brain's reward center?
Cocaine blocks the reuptake pumps which act to remove dopamine from the synapse.
Which one of the following hormones would be tested for in a home pregnancy test?
Which one of the following structures degenerates if a fertilized egg does not embed in the uterus?
In 1921, a woman was attempting to bake some bread for a neighbor. The dough failed to rise. Her doctors may have proposed which of the following explanations?
She must have been releasing menotoxins that stopped yeast from growing, and therefore stopped the bread from rising. She must have been menstruating
At which one of the following days in the 28-day cycle is a woman MOST likely to get pregnant?
Shortly before the midpoint of the menstrual cycle, estrogen from the mature follicle triggers a surge in LH, which stimulates which one of the following events?
During male ejaculation, the internal urethral sphincter closes tightly to:
Prevent urine from leaking into the urethra.
Which one of the following letters in the figure above represents the structure that secretes estrogen and progesterone, which in turn prepare the endometrium to receive a fertilized egg?
Causes the endometrium to thicken in preparation for implantation
Which organ system is not functional until birth and must become fully functional immediately?
The first four days of human embryonic development occur in the:
The process by which an embryo undergoes rapid changes in form and shape is called:
The development of an embryo involves four processes. During which process do cells increase in number and size?
The development of an embryo involves four processes. During which process do cells take on a certain structure and function?
The development of an embryo involves four processes. During which process do cells divide rapidly, resulting in a ball of unspecialized cells?
The placenta forms from embryonic tissue and:
Mesoderm gives rise to:
Muscle and connective tissues.
During puberty, the secretion of GnRH causes the secretion of ________, which in turn stimulate(s) the production of sex hormones:
LH and FSH
Once cleavage has generated enough cells, some cells find themselves in the middle, and some are on the outside. This is significant for cell differentiation because:
Cells with a free surface activate specific genes. Cells with a free surface develop into the trophectoderm. Having a free surface causes some cells to become the embryo's first differentiated cells.
During the first day or so after birth, the breasts produce a watery milk called:
During intercourse with one sexual partner, approximately ________ sperm enter a woman's vagina.
To penetrate the zona pellucida of the ovum, the sperm:
Releases digestive enzymes from the acrosomal cap.
Ectopic pregnancies are dangerous for the mother because:
The oviduct is not capable of housing a growing fetus.
The process by which the blastocyst becomes buried within the endometrial lining of the uterus is called:
The ______ will eventually develop into the embryo.
Inner Cell Mass
A placental abruption is a condition in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall. If this occurs, what processes are likely to be affected?
Oxygen and nutrient exchange between baby and mother.
When a sperm cell enters a secondary oocyte, what event in the oocyte is immediately triggered?
Typically, one oocyte is released during each cycle. However, if two oocytes are released and fertilized, ______________ may arise.
Why is taking the first breath hard work for the newborn?
The diaphragm is inflexible.
Which of the following happens during the cleavage stage of embryonic development?
Every cell produced is identical to every other cell in that no differentiation has taken place.
Identical twins may arise from:
The early embryo splits into two identical balls of cells.
Fertilization occurs when:
The sperm's 23 chromosomes join with the egg's 23 chromosomes.
This is the most common type of cancer:
Tumor suppressor genes function to:
Slow down unchecked cell growth, differentiation, division, or adhesion.
The researcher credited with describing angiogenesis is:
Damage to ________ greatly reduces a cell's ability to repair DNA during DNA replication.
The chance that an individual in the United States will experience some form of cancer in his or her lifetime is:
1 in 3
In which one of the following ways does a proto-oncogene differ from an oncogene?
Proto-oncogenes control normal cell division; oncogenes contribute to the development of cancer.
The robot used in prostate surgery is named after:
The process by which growing tumors stimulate the growth of new blood vessels is called:
When a cancer remains in one location, it is referred to as:
In Situ Cancer
Which one of the following types of cancer kills the highest percentage of people diagnosed with the condition?
The development of a cancerous condition in immature white blood cells located in bone marrow is called:
In which one of the following ways are antiangiogenic drugs used in the treatment of cancer?
These drugs stop the growth of blood vessels into the tumor, so the cells "starve" to death.
How does the iKnife work?
It "sniffs out" cancer cells, allowing doctors to be more exact when removing cancerous tumors. It analyzes the smoke created by the electrosurgical knives surgeons use to cut and cauterize blood vessels
According to the article you read on the origin of cancer:
Early multicellular animals had most of the genes that can cause cancer in humans.
Cancers that metastasize and invade normal tissues to impede their functions are called:
Which one of the following carcinogens accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths?
Oncogenes are derived from:
What is the deadliest type of cancer?
Tumors of this type continue to spread throughout the body, causing damage to several different organ systems; death often results.
Cancers that metastasize and invade normal tissues to impede their functions are called
A child who has Angelman's Syndrome has severe intellectual and developmental disabilities, along with a characteristically happy and jovial demeanor. This disease results from:
A deletion on chromosome 15 inherited from the mother/genomic imprinting. Where the paternal chromosome 15 is silenced.
If you compare epigenomes between two sets of identical twins: one set are five years old, and the other 70 years old, what would you expect to see?
The five year old twins' epigenomes should be mostly the same, but the 70 year old twins' epigenomes should show marked differences.
The epigenome varies:
From tissue to tissue, individual to individual, and over time.
Above the genome.
Epigenetics is best described as:
Heritable changes in gene expression.
The DNA molecules in our bodies are wrapped around:
What are mechanisms of gene silencing?
DNA methylation, RNA-associated silencing, and histone modification.
Which statement is true?
Our epigenome is flexible and can change during our lifetime.
How can you distinguish an eye cell from a tongue or a skin cell?
There are different sets of genes turned on and off in each cell type.
Transgenerational epigenetic effects have been observed:
In children born to mothers who were pregnant during the attacks on the World Trade Center, in children of Holocaust survivors, and in boys whose grandfathers had experienced food shortages.
With epigenetic therapy:
Doctors try to change the behavior of the cell, rather than kill the cell.
Why do identical twins become different over time?
Signals from the environment act to activate and silence different genes.
According to research on rats, why might being anxious be beneficial?
Anxiety that results from being raised by a low-nurturing mother may allow rats to respond quickly to stress in a high-danger environment.
Epigenetic abnormalities in cancer cells can include:
Tumor suppressor genes become epigenetically silenced. Oncogenes, which stimulate the growth of cancer cells, lose methyl tags, which turns them on.
According to the movie, how many genes did we think were in the human genome prior to the Human Genome Project, and how many are actually in the human genome?
In the picture, a segment of DNA is wrapped tightly around proteins called histones. The result of this is:
The gene will not be expressed.
which region of the heart would be directly affected by the nervous system to allow for the slowing of heart rate?
What is the basic filtering unit of the kidney?
What are some characteristics of asexual reproduction?
Skin color in a certain species of fish is inherited via a single gene with four different alleles. How many different types of gametes would be possible in this system?
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