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Personality of Psychology exam 4
Terms in this set (165)
what effects how we behave?
-the traits of the people we are around
-the type of environment we are in
-the time period
What is cultural variation?
There are many similiarities among group members in psychologies and attitudes
What is transmitted culture??
ideas, attitudes are passed from individual to individual
What is an example of transmitted culture?
if you were adopted into another family, your parents might have passed on different beliefs to you (hindu- believe eating beef is wrong)
How can culture affect personality?
evoked culture: environmental differences "evoke" different responses
What is an example of evoked culture?
cooperation/egaliterarianism and cultures of honor
What is culture of honor?
think back to times when there were no police forces (ex the wild west)
- you had to protect your own belongings especially if they are easy to steal
What happens when rule of law is weak?
-reputations become very important
-men needed to establish a reputation of revenge to prevent getting robbed
What is an example of this culture in the south?
-many were herders
-rule of law was weak
What did research by cohen and collegagues test?
took people who grew up in the north or south and bumped them in the hallway and had a confederate called them an *******
What were the results of coheen and colleagues?
men from the south:
-cortisol levels increased
-their testosterone levels increased
-more likely to believer their masculinity was threatened
-had more aggressive thoughts
what does the social environment do?
evoked different responses
what is evoking cooperation?
imagine a situation where you cannot leave your group and you just encounter the same people over and over again
What is an example of evoking cooperation?
-Sometimes bring back a huge kill
-sometimes bring back nothing
* many of your group members are your family so would you share?
What do NOT evoke cooperation?
- you can easily leave the group
-matters less if people dont like you
high food stability:
-we all have good access to food
few kin members:
-less genetic interest for helping others
What is stability and personality?
some culture have institutions that help create stability
What happens with a legal system that punishes crimes?
everyone is held accountable to law
What happens with common currency?
everyones money is worth the same amount
What happens when there is instability?
- people show decreased trust others
- lower agreeableness
-have to rely on stereotypes of people
-people have to show increased agressiveness
What happens When there is stability:
peple can trust others= higher agreeableness
-people can cooperate
-people are more tolerant of others
What is interdependence vs independence?
how people define themselves and conceptualize their relation to others
What is an example of interdependence vs independence
it is important to me to respect decisions made by the group
What is interdependent cultures?
sometimes called "collectivist" Example asian cultures
-focuses on how someone is part of the larger group (emphasis on relationships)
-goal: promote group harmony which means fit in, be flexible, change personality based on situation
ideal personality: empathetic, kind, show respect
what is independent cultures?
how do you differentiate yourself from the group? (american culture)
-focus on what makes you unique
-it is good to be: autonomous and stable
-you think for yourself and free of influence from others
Compared to americans, what do asians do?
make fewer positive statements about themselves but when they do they are in form of negations " i am not lazy"
Who is more likely to be more self critical americans or asians?
What is genetic underpinnings?
there is a genetic link between serotonin and opiod neurotransmitter levels that influence social sensitivity
What is social sensitivity?
how emotionally responsive you are to social events and experiences so ex: social loss and exclusion affects some people more than others
What does genetic underpinnings suggest>
there may be genetic differences underlying cultural differences
What is socialization theory?
boys and girls become different because their behaviors are differentially reinforced by parents, teachers, media
How does the socialization theory work?
-can happen through observing others
-can happen through different reinforcement
-can happen through different roles
What is socialization of girls
-assigned more domestic chores
-socialized to be more nurturing and dependent
-encouraged to be sexually restrained
What is socialization of boys?
-permitted to roam father from home
-punished for crying
-praised for engaging in "rough & tumble" play
What is theoretical critique of socialization?
where do these beliefs and expectations come from?
why would parents want children to behave according to these norms?
Where do you see a higher sex difference?
What shows moderate heritability?
sex typed behaviors and attitudes
-among women, crying and expressing emotions is 38% heritable
-gender atypicality is 50% heritable
What happens if something is consistently found across all cultures?
it is considered a human universal but this does not mean all men are the same or all women are they same
What is the whorfian hypothesis?
language predicts which emotions are experienced
What is an example of whorfian hypothesis?
if a culture doesnt have a word for the phenomenon they must not experience
What ate cultural differences in emotions?
-cultures may differ in how they talk about or express emotions but likely NOT the emotions they experience
what id ekman do?
created a set of six photos are people expressing emotions
what was the results of Ekman study?
the 6 emotions were universally recognized by people
What emotions are human universals?
joy, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise
Is there cultural differences in emotion?
yes, cultures experience the SAME emotional response but cultures DIFFER in their expression of the response
Can social or historical context influence personality?
during great depression and 60s and 70s people would have different personalities due to the time period
what is one factor that has changed over time?
expectations for women
When did womens assertiveness rise and fall?
rose in the 30s and fell in the 50s and 60s and rose again afterwards
What is health psychology?
there is a link between our psychologies, our behaviors, and health outcomes
ex: lifestyle contributes more than 50% to premature death
What does health psychology explore?
relationship between the mind and the body
Whats a stressor?
external stimulus that causes stress to an organism
what are the three components of a stressor>
-produce a feeling of being overhwhelmed
-produce opposing tendences
-uncontrollable: outside our power
What is an acute stressor?
sudden onset of demands
-one particular instance ex 9/11
What is episodic acute stressor?
repeated episodes of acute stress
ex: mother in law visiting once a month
what is a traumatic stressor>
massive instance of acute stress
ex: car accident, death of loved one
can lead to PTSD
What is a chronic stressor?
stress that does not end
day in and dy out which can lead to serious illness
What is stress?
pattern of emotional and physiological response to a stressor
Example of stress and stressor?
worry increased heart rate=stress
What two events must occur for a person to experience stress?
primary and secondary appraisals
What is a primary appraisal?
person perceives the event as a threat to their personal goals ex failing an exam
What is a secondary appraisal?
person concludes he or she doesnt have the resources to cope with the demands ex: do you think i can improve by grade by studying?
What is general adaptation syndrome?
if person experiences chronic stress this can lead to GAS
What did Hans Seyle propose?
Alarm, Resistance, and Exhaustion
What is alarm?
fight or flight response
hormones prpare the body for a challenge
What is resistance stage?
stress is being resisted, but this takes effort and energy
What is exhaustion stage>
physiological resources are depleted and person is vulnerable to illness
What is most of the stress we experience caused by?
daily hassles such as having to wait in traffic, unpleasant boss, or worrying about money
What is the highest daily hassle that is a major source of stress?
concerns about weight
Those who experience more minor stressors are more likely to experience?
psychological symptoms and physical symptoms
Effects of stressors (minor and major) are
additive which means they add up and accumulate more stressors=worse outcomes
What is attributional style?
how people explain events in their lives ex: where do we place blame>
What is attributional style reflect?
persons level of optimism or pessimism
What is optimists?
tend to make external, unstable, and specific attributions for negative events (look at power point slide 19)
What are pessimists?
tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions for negative events (look at power point sldie 20)
What is peoples level of optimism related to?
better health outcomes and health behaviors
Who is more likely to die at an earlier age?
pessimists because accidents and violent deaths particularly for men
What is emotion suppression?
many things in life can lead us to experience negative emotions
What are pros of holding in negative emotions>
often it is socially inappropriate to express our negative emotions
-emotion suppression is an important social skill we develop as children
What happens to those who supressed their emotions?
increase physiological arousal during the videos
less amusement during amusing video
same level of sadness during sad video
What is disclosure?
telling someone something private about oneself
What is type A personality?
competitive achievement motivation:
-like to work hard and achieve goals
-seek power and recognition
-hate wasting time
-get frustrated easily
What disease is type A personality linked with?
what trait links type A personality to heart disease?
What is hostility linked too?
activation of flight or fight response so increased blood pressure and constriction of arteries
What is atheriosclerosis?
hardening or blocking of arteries if they are blocked then heart attack
what is the "broaden and build theory of positive emotions?
Broaden: widens scope of attention and thoughts which allows person to see more options and try different ways of coping
Build: helps a person build reserves of energy and social support
What is positive reappraisal?
focus on the good in what has happened
-look for opportunities of growth
allows person to reinterpret the situation
What is problem focused coping?
how can you use your thoughts and behaviors to solve the underlying cause
focus on the aspects you can control
What is creating positive events?
create a time out from stress so you pause and reflect on something positive
what is the five factor model of personality?
we can tell with about 65% accuracy someones future personality by knowing their current personality
What happens to personality with age?
it becomes more consistent
When does personality change more?
when a person is younger
What happens to our personalities when we get older?
become more stable and stability peaks around age 50`
What happens with openness with age?
What happens with extraversion with age?
What happens with neuroticism with age?
decrease less negative affect, more eomtional stability
What happens to conscientiousness with age?
what happens with agreeableness with age?
What is the maturity principle?
people become more controlled, confident socially, less anxious and avoid risks
What happens with womens self esteem over age?
What happens to mens self esteem over age?
increases with age and ambition decreases becoming more realistic
How does who your marry affect your personaity?
if you marry someone with similiar personality then your stays constant
if you marry someonewith different yours changes
How does personality predict divorce?
Neuroticism of both partners
impulse control (conscientiousness) of husband
How does personality relate to school work?
high self control and high conscientiousness
What is having tantrums linked too?
divorce, changing jobs often, more unemployment, and downward social mobiltity
Where is personality used often?
employment settings which is personnel selection where you use personality to choose who is best for the job
What did myers briggs do?
placing people into "types" or categories is problematic and some people fall in the middle
-relibility is low and 50% of people receive a different classification when they take it again
Which personality test should we use?
Hogan personality inventory which is built test using the big 5 which look how these traits might apply to a work setting
What was hogans personality inventory?
he theorizes that people want 3 things in groups: acceptance, status and control of resources, and predictability
Is the hogan personality inventory high in reliability and validity?
Why are personality tests used to help chose police officers?
they help find the ideal personality type
What is the problem with using personality tests?
faking bad/ good which means people purposely distort their answers on these traits especially when tests are used to predict life outcomes
What are integrity tests?
psychologists have come up with ways to minimize faking on personality tests
What are the two ways to mimize faking on personality tests?
create a faking bad/faking good profile an social desirability scale
What is the disparate impact?
title 7 of the civil rights act said that employers have to provide equal opportunity to everyone an they cant discriminate based on race, religion, sex, or national origin
What is the americans with disabilities act
employers cannot ask about disabilities or hire based on them
What is a personality disorder?
enduring pattern of experience and behavior that differ greatly from the cultural norms
about 13% of population has at least one personality disorder
25-50% of those who have one also have another one
What is the DSM?
used to diagnose psychological disorders
What are the three things the DSM is cautious with?
age, life circumstances, and culture
What is the erratic cluster?
people with these disorders tend to be
What PDs are erratic disorders?
antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic
What is antisocial disorder?
general disregard for others
-cares little about rights and feelings of others
-usually have childhood behavioral problems
-earlier onset of childhood problems=more lively to develop antisocial PD
What is the relationship between age and antisocial?
with age, problems worsen such as
-breaking and entering
What are sex differences with antisocial?
much more common in men than women and have the largest sex difference in personality disorders!!
What are some common traits for Antisocial PD?
show little respect for law
lack of remorse
What is the difference between antisocial and psychopathy?
antisocial focuses more on behavior and is more broad
-all psychopaths would be considered antisocial but not all with antisocial PD would be psychopaths
What do you need to be considered a psychopath?
egocentricity (focus on self)
What is borderline personality disorder?
instability- w/ relationships and emotions
have strong fears of abandonment
may harm themselves
What are the three characteristics of borderline?
unstable sense of self, unstable opinions of others, very demanding on their relationships (so manipulative)
What are the sex differences with borderline personality disorder?
women are diagnosed up to 3 times more ofthen than men
What is BL PD caused by?
early loss of love from parents aka neglect, physical or sexual abuse, parental problems with drug or alcohol
How heritable is borderline personality disorder?
What is histronic personality disorder?
excessive attention seeking
-concerned with appearances(wear too much makep)
display strong emotions in public
What are the sex differences with histrionic?
women are about 4 times more likely to be dianosed
What are the behavior differences with men and women?
men=boast about past seductions, power at work
women=dress sexually, wear excess makeup, excessively flirty
What is narcissistic PD?
least common PD
strong need to be admired
strong sense of self importance
lack of insight into others about feelings
sense of superiority
Do narcissistic have high self esteem?
yes, but it is also vulnerable so it depends on others to verify their important and they become easily envious of others
What is the eccentric cluster?
people with disorder from this cluster can be very strange and have problems with social interactions
What are the three eccentric disorders?
schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid.
What is schizoid?
detached from normal social relations
-no need or desire for social relationships
-are unaffecte by insults and compliments
-do not respond to social cues
Do schizoid receive much bodily pleasure?
no they dont get pleasure from sex or eating
WWhat is schizotypal?
very uncomfortable in social interactions (socially anxious)
-feel as though they do not "fit in"
-are suspicious of others
-they are odd and have strange beliefs
-difficulty with social relationships
What is schizophrenia?
means cutting mind off reality and is a serious mental illness involving hallucinations, delusions, and perceptual abnormalities
How is schizotypal related to schizophrenia?
odd unusal beliefs
How is schizoid related to schizophrenia?
social apathy so lack of interest
What do many family members of schizophrenics show?
Wht is paranoid?
extremely distrustful of others and assume others are out to get you
do not reveal personal info to others
misinterprets social events
What are the sex differences with paranoid?
slightly more common in men
what is the anxious cluster?
people with these disorders are nervous, fearful, and distressed
What disorders fall under the anxious cluster?
avoidant, dependent, and obsessive compulsive
What is the avoidant PD?
feelings of inadequacy
highly sensitive to criticism
main cause: fear rejetion from others
How do others see people with avoidant PD?
meekm shy, and quiet
What is dependent disorder?
excessive need to be taken care of
believe they are unable to take care of themselves
want others to take charge
rarely take initiative
What are the sex differences in dependent personality disorder?
more often diagnosed in women but this may caused by self reporting
What is the heritable of dependent disorder?
What is obsessive compulsive disorder personality disorder?
most common PD about 4% of people have it
What are the characteristics of obsessive compulsive personality disorder?
preoccupied with order, strives to be perfect, devotion to work, inflexible about ethics and morals, dislike delegating tasks to others, have hoarding tendencies
What are the sex differences in obsessive compulsive disorder?
slightly more common in men
Whats the difference between obsessive compulsive disorder and obsessive compulsive personality disorder?
OCD- anxiety disorder more serious and unwanted and intrusive thoughts which are troubling
OCPD- collection of traits and need for order
What did widiger argue?
that PDs are just extreme manifestations of normal personality traits so the difference between normal and abnormal is a matter of degree
What is the theory for borderline?
What is the theory for avoidant?
extreme introversion and high neurotism
what is the theory for histrionic?
What is the theoy for schizoid?
extreme introversion and low neuroticism
What is the theory for schizotypal?
introversion, high neuroticism, low agreeableness, high openness
What is the theory for obsessive compulsive?
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