Midterm Sociology

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Aggregate
individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together (p. 112)
Alienation
Marx's term for the workers' lack of connection to the product of their labor; caused by their being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product, which leads to a sense of powerlessness and normlessness; also used in the general sense of not feeling a part of something (p. 121)
Authoritarian leader
a leader who leads by giving orders (p. 126)
Bureaucracy
a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor; emphasis on written rules, communications, and records; and impersonality of positions (p. 118)
Category
people who have similar characteristics (p. 112)
Clique
a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another; an internal faction (p. 117)
Coalition
the alignment of some members of a group against others (p. 124)
Corporate culture
the orientations that characterize corporate work settings (p. 123)
Democratic leader
a leader who leads by trying to reach a consensus (p. 126)
Diffusion of responsibility
individuals are less likely to help others in a large group (p.125)
Dyad
the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons (p. 124)
Electronic community
individuals who regularly interact with one another on the Internet and who think of themselves as belonging together (p. 117)
Expressive leader
an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socioemotional leader (p. 126)
Goal displacement
the adoption of new goals by an organization; also known as goal replacement (p. 119)
Group
people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a social group (p. 112)
Group dynamics
the ways in which individuals affect groups and groups influence individuals
(p. 124)
Groupthink
Irving Janis term for a narrowing of thought by a group of people leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer; in groupthink, to suggest alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty (p. 129)
In-groups
groups toward which one feels loyalty (p. 114)
Instrumental leader
an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals; also known as a task oriented leader (p. 126)
(The) iron law of oligarchy
Robert Michels' phrase for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by small, self-perpetuating elite (p. 114)
Laissez-faire leader
an individual who leads by being highly permissive (p. 126)
Leader
someone who influences other people (p. 125)
Leadership styles
ways in which people express their leadership (p. 126)
Out-groups
groups toward which one feels antagonism (p. 114)
Peter Principle
Laurence Peter's term for an employee of a bureaucracy being promoted to his or her level of incompetence (p. 121)
Primary group
a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation (p. 112)
(The) rationalization of society
a widespread acceptance of rationality and a social organization largely built around this idea (p. 119)
Reference group
Herbert Hyman's term for groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves p. 115)
Secondary group
compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity, whose members are likely to interact on the basis of specific roles (p. 114)
Small group
a group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members
(p. 124)
Social network
the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together (p. 116)
Triad
a group of three people (p. 124)
Voluntary association
a group made up of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest, also known as voluntary memberships (p. 114)
Capital punishment
the death penalty (p. 152)
Control theory
the idea that two control systems—inner controls and outer controls—work against our tendencies to deviate (p. 138)
Crime
the violation of norms written into law (p. 134)
Criminal justice system
the system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime (p. 147)
Cultural goals
the legitimate objectives held out to the members of a society (p. 142)
Deviance
the violation of rules or norms (p. 134)
Differential association
Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that associating with some groups results in learning an "excess of definitions" of deviance, and, by extension, in a greater likelihood that one will become deviant (p. 137)
Genetic predisposition
inborn tendencies, in this context, to commit deviant acts (p. 136)
Hate crime
crimes to which more severe penalties are attached because they are motivated by hatred (dislike, animosity) of someone's race-ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin (p. 155)
Illegitimate opportunity structure
opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life (p. 144)
Institutionalized means
approved ways of reaching cultural goals (p. 142)
Labeling theory
the view, developed by symbolic interactionists, that the labels people are given affect their own and others' perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior either into deviance or into conformity (p. 139)
Medicalization of deviance
to make some deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians (p. 156)
Negative sanction
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm; ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a more formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution (p. 136)
Personality disorders
the view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms (p. 137)
Positive sanction
a reward given for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize (p. 136)
Recidivism rate
the proportion of people who are rearrested (p. 152)
Social control
a group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms (p. 136)
Social order
a group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives (p. 136)
Stigma
'blemishes" that discredit a person's claim to a "normal" identity (p. 134)
Strain theory
Robert Merton's term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (such as success) but withholds from many the approved means to reach that goal; one adaptation is crime, the choice of an innovative but illegitimate means (one outside the approved system) to attain the cultural goal (p. 142)
Street crime
crimes such as mugging, rape, and burglary (p. 136)
Techniques of neutralization
ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect society's norms (p. 139)
White-collar crime (corporate crime)
Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; examples include bribery of public officials, securities violations, embezzlement, false advertising, and price fixing (p. 145)
Bourgeoisie
Karl Marx's term for capitalists; those who own the means of production (p. 167)
Caste system
a form of social stratification in which one's status is determined by birth and is lifelong (p. 163)
Class consciousness
Karl Marx's term for awareness of a shared identity based on one's position in the means of production (p. 167)
Class system
a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions (p. 165)
Colonialism
the process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources (p. 180)
Culture of poverty
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children (p. 181)
Divine right of kings
the idea that the king's authority comes directly from God (p. 171)
Endogamy
the practice of marrying within one's own group (p. 164)
False class consciousness
Karl Marx's term to refer to workers identifying with the interests of capitalists (p. 167)
Globalization of capitalism
capitalism (investing to make profits within a rational system) becoming the globe's dominant economic system (p. 180)
Global superclass
the 6,000 people in the world with the greatest wealth/power concentration (p. 166)
Ideology
beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements (p. 163)
Means of production
the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth (p. 167)
Meritocracy
a form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit (p. 169)
Multinational corporations
companies that operate across many national boundaries, also called transnational corporations (p. 182)
Neocolonialism
the economic and political dominance of the Least Industrialized Nations by the Most Industrialized Nations (p. 182)
Proletariat
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production (p. 167)
Slavery
a form of social stratification in which some people own other people (p. 162)
Social class
according to Weber, a large number of people who rank close to one another in power, property, and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor (pp. 166-168)
Social mobility
movement up or down the social class ladder (p. 166)
Social stratification
the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige; applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society, or other group (p. 162)
World system theory
economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together
(p. 180)
social differentiation
how people vary according to social characteristics, gender, race, economic level
social stratification
ranking people, like prestige/wealth
power
the ability to control/influence people with or without the peoples consent
social class
category of people who have about the same wealth and prestige, giving them the same amount of power
social status
amount of honor and prestige someone receives from others in the society, along with the position someone occupies
caste system
ascribed status at birth, cannot move up or down, if you're born poor, you'll always be poor
closed system
no rank movement up or down in social class
open system
possible to move up and down in social class
upward mobility
increased wealth, power, prestige
downward mobility
decreased wealth, power, prestige
hunting-gathering societies
moving often for supplies, no home, goal is to get food for the day
simple horticultural society
farming with simple tools, stay in one place, good food supply, higher population
advanced horticultural society
develop irrigation, tame animals, fertilizer, developing tools, greater population, developing formal leadership, development of trade
agrarian society
formalized trade, formal leadership, division of labor, increased stratification, more food and people, development of protection/army
industrial society
greater number of people, mass producing food, items, services, formal leadership/gov, sophisticated technology and protection
new world order
no countries, world-wide system of economy
macro sociology
analysis of social life that focuses on broad features of society, social class, relationships of groups, used by functionalists and conflict theorists
micro sociology
analysis of social life focusing on social interaction, used by symbolic interactionists
social structure
framework of society, how people and groups are related to each other, the framework sets direction and limits to the behavior
social class
large number of people who have similar income and education, work jobs with roughly the same prestige
ascribed status
positions inherited at birth of involuntarily given like gender
achieved status
positions that are earned, involve some effort/activity on the individuals part
status inconsistency
ranks high in some areas of social status, low in others
group
people who have something in common & believe that what they have in common is significant
mechanical solidarity
Durkeims term for the unity people feel as a result of performing for the same or similar tasks
division of labor
splitting a group/society tasks into specialties
organic solidarity
Durkeims term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor, as part of the same unit, all depend on each other to do their job
gemeinschaft
society in which life is intimate: a community in which everyone knows each other, sharing a sense of togetherness
gesellschaft
society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual relationships, accomplishments, and self interests
stereotype
assumptions of what people are like, true or false
body language
using the body to pass messages to others
dramaturgy
Erving Goffman, social life analyzed in terms of drama or the stage
impression management
effort to control the impressions that others receive of them
front stages
place where people give performances like a wedding
back stages
where people rest from their performances, discuss their presentations and plan future performances like the bathroom or bedroom wherever there is privacy
role strain
conflicts that someone feels within a role
sign vehicle
Goffman, using social setting, appearance, and attitude to communicate info about the self
teamwork
collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly
face saving behavior
salvaging an interaction thats gone poorly
ethnomethodology
study of how people use background assumptions to make sense out of life
background assumption
deeply embedded common understanding of how the world operates and how people should act
Thomas Theorem
if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
social construction of reality
use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real
culture
language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, material objects that characterize a group and is passed through generations
material culture
material objects that distinguish a group of people, art, buildings, weapons, clothing, jewelry, hair, machines
nonmaterial culture
a groups way of thinking (beliefs and values) and a groups way of doing (behavior and language)
culture shock
the disorientation people experience when they're in contact with a new culture and can't depend on their old culture
ethnocentrism
using your culture as a comparison to judge people of a different culture
cultural relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on the culture's terms
symbol
something people attach meaning to, use it to communicate with each other
gestures
ways people use their bodies to communicate
language
way of communicating. system of symbols that can be combined so many ways, representing objects to abstract thoughts
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
values
standards by which people define what is desirable/undesirable, good and bad, beautiful and ugly
norms
expectations of the right behavior
sanctions
expressions of approval given to people who uphold the norms or expressions of disapproval for violating the norms
positive sanction
reward/positive reaction for following norms
negative sanction
expression of disapproval for violating norms
folkways
norms that aren't strictly enforced
mores
norms strictly enforced because they're thought to be essential to core values/ wellbeing of the culture
taboo
very strong norm, that when its violated there are severe reactions/consequences
subculture
values and behaviors that represent a group from the larger culture, a world within a world
counterculture
group of people whose values, beliefs, norms, and behavior place the group in opposition to the broader culture
pluralistic society
society made up of many different groups
core values
values that are central to a group
value cluster
values together, that form a larger whole
value contradictions
values that contradict one another
cultural universe
value or norm found in every group or culture
sociobiology
a framework of thought that views human behavior as the result of natural selection, considering biological factors to cause human behavior
technology
tools, and the skills and procedures to use the tools
new technology
emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life
cultural lag
human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural traits from one group to another
cultural leveling
process of cultures becoming similar to each other
participant observation/fieldwork
research in which the researcher is in a research setting while observing what is happening in the setting
case study
intensive analysis of a single event, situation or individual
secondary analysis
the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers
unobtrusive measures
observing behavior of people who don't know they're being observed
population
target group to be studied
sample
individuals intended to represent the population that's going to be studied
stratified random sample
sample from the subgroups of the target population
respondents
people who respond to surveys, by interview or questionnaire
closed ended question
question with a list of possible answers
open ended question
respondent can answer freely
rapport
feeling of trust between researchers and the people being studied
symbolic interactionism
theoretical perspective composed of symbols that people use to create meaning, develop their views of the world, and to communicate
conflict theory
theory in which society is viewed as groups competing for a scarce resource
macro analysis
examination of large scale patterns of society
micro analysis
examination of small scale patterns of society
social interaction
what people do when in each others presence, including long distance communication
nonverbal interaction
communication without words, using gestures, space, silence...
hypothesis
statement of how variables are expected to be related, according to predictions from the theory
research method
surveys, participant observations, case studies, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, unobtrusive measures
social perspective
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
society
people who share a culture and a territory
social location
the group members that people have because of their location in history and society
scientific method
the use of objective, systematic observations to test theories
positivism
application of the scientific approach to the social world
social integration/cohesion
the degree to which people in a group/society feel united by shared values or other bonds
basic/pure sociology
sociological research for the purpose of discovery in life of human groups, not for change in groups
applied sociology
using sociology to solve issues
public sociology
using sociology for the public good
sociology
the study of relationships, social groups, social institutions, and society
sunk cost fallacy
putting trust/effort into something that when it fails people will continue to believe in it and or continue to use it
descriptive studies
obtains info about the study
analytical studies
focuses on the causes in the study
evaluative studies
estimating the effects/impact of the study
Plato/Socrates
studied the human condition from a philosophical point of view
Auguste Comte
France, 1800s, father of sociology, believed that philosophy and science bring practical solutions, believed it was nature + nurture
Herbert Spencer
England, 1800s, coined the phrase "survival of the fittest," believed society evolves on the principles of natural laws, didn't want to change society let the weak die and the strong survive
Karl Marx
Germany, 1800s, economic sociologist, social conflict brings social change the haves vs the have nots
Emile Durkeim
France, mid 1800s, 1st academic sociologist, brought the scientific method into sociology, believed people are products of society, collective consciousness, context is more important that individual behavior
Max Weber
Germany, mid 1800s, believed the individual is more important than context, emphasized importance of internal structures, focused on feelings, responses not external cues
self fulfilling prophecy
if you are told something long enough, you'll believe it and behave like it
Marx's conflict theory
society is best understood and analyzed in terms of conflict and power
structural functional theory, chicago schools
all has an underlying tendency to be in a state of balance/equilibrium. Society contains interdependent parts/structures to maintain the balance
Weber's symbolic interaction theory
society exists within every individual and outside structure, it develops from the interaction of these individuals and society exists within symbols like a stop sign or authority figure
Exchange Theory
belief that life is a series of exchanges, involving rewards and costs
behaviorism
something stimulates and a response is given
Evolutionary Theory
sociology and people are like a biological process, starts simple and develops into something complex as time goes on
Social Darwinism
survival of the fittest
social environment
the entire human environment including interaction with others
feral children
children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from humans
self
unique human capacity of being able to see ourselves "from the other side" the views we internalize of how others see us
looking-glass self
the process of which our self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us
taking the role of the other
putting yourself in someone else's shoes, understanding how someone feels or thinks so you can anticipate how they'll act
significant other
individual who significantly influences someone else
generalized other
the norms, values, attitudes & expectations of people in general
ID
Freuds term for our inborn basic drives
ego
Freuds term for a balancing force between the ID and the demands of society
superego
Freuds term for the conscience, internalized norms and values of our social groups
gender
behavior and attitudes that a society determines proper for its males and females, masculinity or feminity
gender socialization
learning society's gender map, the paths in life set out for us because we are male or female
peer group
group of individuals, roughly the same age who are linked by common interests
mass media
forms of communication such as radio, newspapers, TV, directed towards a mass audience
agents of socialization
people or groups that affect our self concept; attitudes, behaviors, any orientations towards life: family, neighborhood, religion, day care, school, peers, work
manifest functions
the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions
latent functions
unintended beneficial consequences of people's actions
anticipatory socialization
the process of learning in advance an anticipated future role/status
resocialization
process of learning new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors
total institution
place almost totally controlled by those who run it, the people are cut off from society
degradation ceremony
Garfinkel, goal to remake someone by stripping their identity and giving them a new one
life course
the stages of our life as we go from birth to death
transitional adulthood
period following high school when young adults haven't taken the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood i.e. adultolescence
transitional older years
stage of life between retirement and when people are considered old 65-75 years of age
role
social expectation for behaviors associated with a status
role set
multiple roles attached to multiple statuses, to be a father and a doctor
role conflict
differing expectations for the same role
role perception
the way expectations are defined by society, may differ from behavior
role performance
how we behave within the role
role ambiguity
expectations are not clear
status
socially defined position, occupied by individuals
status set
combo of status positions that an individual can occupy
master status
overshadows all other statuses/positions someone can occupy
reference group
groups we identify with and we measure ourselves against them, like performance, strive be like the group, role models
aggregate group
collection of people who are together in the same place at the same time like a class room
associational group
group that joins together to pursue a common interest/goal, more formal and structured
categorical group
group that shares a common characteristic but doesn't always interact
statistical group
groups formed by scientists, members unaware they're a part of the group
social groups
groups that interact to share a sense of belonging, interests and structure
primary group
group that is small, intimate, informal, person, person oriented like friends and family
secondary group
group that is larger, more formal, goal oriented, has a purpose like a sports team, work or religion
in group
group where people feel they belong
out group
group where people feel they don't belong
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