Anatomy 204 Exam 4: Endocrine System

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Endocrine communication is transmitted through the
bloodstream
Endocrine communication chemical mediators are
hormones
the distribution of effects of endocrine communication are
target cells (mainly in other distant tissues and organs and must have appropriate receptors)
similarities between communication in the endocrine system and in the nervous system:
-both systems rely on the release of chemicals that bind to specific receptors on their target cells
-the two systems share many chemical messengers
-both systems are regulated by negative feedback control mechanisms
-both systems function to preserve homeostasis by coordinating and regulating the activities of other cells, tissues, organ and systems
secretes hormones involved with fluid balance, smooth muscle contraction, and the control of hormone secretion by the anterior of the lobe of the pituitary gland
hypothalamus
secretes multiple hormones that regulate the endocrine activities of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and reproductive organs, and a hormone that stimulates melanin production
pituitary gland
secretes hormones that affect metabolic rate and calcium ion levels in body fluids
thyroid gland
secrete hormones involved with mineral balance, metabolic control, and resistance to stress
adrenal glands
secrete hormones that affect regulating the rate of glucose uptake and utilization by body tissues
pancreatic islets
secretes melatonin, which affects reproductive function and helps establish circadian rhythms
secrete a hormon important to the regulation of calcium ion levels in body fluids
the hypothalamus is a pat of the ______ of the brain
diencephalon
the hypothalamus has neurons within it that secrete regulatory hormone that have a direct influence on hormone-secreting cells in the
pituitary gland
the hypothalamus is located just superior to the pituitary gland, which is found in the ___________
sella turcica
a depression found within the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull
sella turcica
the pituitary gland releases hormones under the influence of the hypothalamus control that control the
secretory activities of cells in the endocrine glands elsewhere in the body
by secreting specific regulatory hormones, the hypothalamus controls the production and release of hormones front the
anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
neurons in the hypothalamus release hormones at capillary beds in a region of the hypothalamus called the
median eminence
the chemical signaling between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary is accomplished by a capillary network called the
hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system
hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary under the influence of the hypothalamus then are distributed throughout ehe systemic circulation to cells in
target endocrine glands throughout the body
neurons with specific nuclei in the hypothalamus send their axons into the
posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (where they release hormones at capillary beds)
the released hormones then travel in the systemic circulation to have influences on
cells, tissues, and systems in other parts of the body
TSH: thyroid-stimulating hormone
stimulates production of thyroid hormones
ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic hormone
stimulates production of steroid hormones
FSH: follicle stimulating hormone
stimulates production of hormones regulating reproduction in males and females
LH: luteinizing hormone
stimulates production of hormones regulating reproduction in males and females
GH: growth hormone
stimulates cell and tissue growth
PRL: prolactin
stimulates mammary gland development
MSH: melanocyte-stimulating hormone
stimulates production of melanin in skin
hormone secretion is controlled through
negative feedback mechanisms
the hypothalamus releases a releasing hormone (RH) that triggers the
release of hormone from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
the pituitary hormone stimulates release of a
hormone from the target organ
the hormone from the target organ suppresses the release
hypothalamic releasing hormone and the pituitary hormone
thyroid gland is located on the anterior surface of the
trachea just inferior to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx
the thyroids right and left lobes are connected by the
isthmus
the thyroid gland causes
stimulation of cell and tissue metabolism
parathyroid glands is in charge of
calcium homeostasis
the adrenal glands are in charge of
water and electrolyte balance; glucose metabolism in response to stress; sex hormones
the endocrine prancers produces
insulin and glucagon
insulin and glucagon are responsible for
the regulation of blood glucose levels
when blood glucose levels increase, cell in the pancreas secrete
insulin
when blood glucose levels fall, other populations of cells in the pancreas secrete
glucagon
the pineal gland is responsible for
regulating processes that follow a circadian cycle pattern
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