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Geol 101 Final Test Qs
Terms in this set (171)
The three main types of sediment are:
clastic, biological, chemical
Scientific hypotheses should always be
Which of the following mountain chains was the result of a continental collision during the assembly of the supercontinent Pangaea?
Which of the volcanic eruption-related hazards listed below has caused the fewest deaths overall?
A torrential mudflow of wet volcanic debris is called a
Which of the following lists is written in order of decreasing particle size?
conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone
Diamond is an example of what type of bonding?
Silicate structures can be
isolated tetrahedra, single chains, sheets
The center of an atom is called a
Which of the following properties increases in the direction of the arrows in the diagram below?
felsic ----> intermediate -----> Mafic
What is the name of the large supercontinent that existed 200 million years ago when all the continents were together?
Most common rock-forming minerals are
Which of the following statements about the scientific method is false?
a theory that has accumulated a substantial body of experimental support is called a hypothesis
Which of the following subatomic particles has a positive charge?
What is the name for a basaltic lava flow that has a ropy, folded surface?
Which of the following igneous rocks has the lowest silica content
Each element has a unique number of
What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering?
In which of the following tectonic settings do most of the Earth's active volcanoes occur?
convergent plate boundaries
Oceanic crust that records negative magnetic anomalies formed when the Earth's magnetic field was
reversed from what it is today
Which of the following is an example of a transform plate boundary?
the San Andreas fault
Which of the following substances is not considered a mineral?
Which of the following is a divergent plate boundary?
What types of lavas are erupted at mid-ocean ridges?
Isotopes of an element have different numbers of
How old are the oldest rocks on the ocean floor?
200 million years old
According to the principle of uniformitarianism,
geologic processes we observe today have operated in the past
abrasion of sediment particles results in which of the following?
they become smaller and more rounded
the chain of volcanoes that forms at an ocean-ocean convergent plate boundary is referred to as a ___ arc
Which of the following elements tends to share electrons?
The tendency for variations in current velocity to segregate sediments on the basis of particle size is called
What type of chemical bonding holds the Na and Cl atoms together in table salt (NaCl)?
The Hawaiian volcanoes are
not located at a plate boundary
Which of the following mountain ranges is the product of continent-continent convergence?
What type of rock makes up most of the Hawaiian Islands?
Which statement comparing felsic rocks to mafic rocks is true?
felsic rocks have more silica and less magnesium than mafic rocks
What is the effect of water on rock melting?
water lowers the melting temperature of a rock
What is the most important factor that controls the size of mineral grains in an igneous rock?
the rate of magma cooling
The mineral property "cleavage" refers to
the splitting of a mineral along planar surfaces
What drives plate tectonics?
Large igneous bodies that form at depth in the Earth's crust are called
Where is new lithosphere created?
divergent plate boundaries
Sedimentary basins are formed by a process called
In what type of rocks are you most likely to find oil, natural gas, and coal?
Solidified fragments of volcanic material ejected into the air are called
An island arc forms when there is ____ convergence
Mantle plumes that reach the surface form
Which of the following mountain ranges formed as a result of ocean-continent convergence?
Burial of sediments results in
increasing pressure and increasing temperature
The amount of ground displacement in an earthquake is called the
Which of the following statements best describes the behavior of rocks during deformation?
Brittle materials deform by faulting, whereas ductile material deform by folding
Which of the following sequences describes the metamorphic changes in the shale with increasing metamorphic grade?
slate --> schist --> gneiss
The Earth's magnetic field is produced by convective electrical currents in
the liquid outer core
Which of the following is the best statement of the principle of original horizontality?
sediments are deposited as horizontal layers
The parent rock of quartzite is
The S wave shadow zone is caused by the
Which of the following rocks do not have shale as the parent rock?
Upfolds, or arches, of layered rock are called
What is an unconformity?
a sequence of deformed rocks
The geologically stable areas of continental crust are referred to as
What two measurements describe the orientation of a fault plate at a given location?
dip and strike
The modified Mercalli intensity scale measures
the amount of destruction caused by an earthquake, the amount of slip on a fault plane caused by an earthquake, the amplitude of the surface waves
What is an orogeny?
a general term for mountain-building processes
Which of the following types of seismic waves are the slowest?
Which of the following orogenies represents the final assembly of Pangaea?
Which of the following is used by geologists to determine the relative ages in a rock sequence?
cross-cutting relationships, fossils, stratigraphy
Radiometric dating is possible if a rock contains a measurable amount of
both daughter and parent atoms
Which layer in the Earth does not transmit S waves
How many seismograph stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake
The San Andreas fault is a result of what type of forces?
Which of the following seismic waves will arrive at a seismograph first
The study of the layers in sedimentary rock is known as
The first gold rush in the US was in
Where are the oldest rocks in North America located?
What types of forces dominate at convergent plate margins
A gravity survey of India showed that
the Himalayas have a low density "root"
What does the elastic rebound theory describe?
The build-up and release of stress during an earthquake
What is the maximum amount of slip on a fault during an earthquake?
about 20 meters
Which of the following statements is false?
dikes are older than the rocks they cross-cut
What does not hold up mountain belts?
high density "roots"
Metamorphosed limestones and dolostones are called
Which of the following terms describes large exposures of very old, crystalline basement rocks?
The continents are still rising, rebounding isostatically from the last great ice sheets that retreated 10,000 years ago
The angle at which a sedimentary bed is inclined from horizontal is called the
Continents are made up of
ancient granitic cratons, island arcs accreted to the edges of the continents, exotic terranes
The world's largest earthquakes occur along
megathrusts at subduction zones
Which of the following can change the rate of radioactive decay?
The style of deformation that occurs at deep levels in the Earth's crust is referred to as
What is the average rate at which temperature increases with depth in the Earth's crust?
The ground motion during a Richter magnitude 8 earthquake is _____ times greater than the ground motion during a Richter magnitude 6 earthquake.
What mountain chain runs along the eastern margin of North America?
A rift valley is
left-lateral strike-slip fault
right-lateral strike-slip fault
An overturned fold is characterized by two limbs ____.
dipping in the same direction, with one limb tilted beyond vertical
Diamonds are high pressure carbon carried to the earth's surface in kimberlite pipes from a depth of
100 to 300 km
Which of the following types of tectonic forces causes faulting?
compressive forces, shear forces, tensional forces
Seismic tomography can detect relatively warm regions of the mantle because seismic waves
travel more slowly through these regions
The Carolina Piedmont is made of
islands arc rocks accreted to North America
The principle of superposition states that
undisturbed sedimentary layers get progressively younger from bottom to top
Continental crust beneath mountains can be up to ___ km thick
Which of the following correctly links the tectonic force with the expected type of faulting?
shear = strike-slip faulting
Strike-slip faults have ____ displacement
Which of the following statements is false?
the Earth's magnetic field never reverses
What is the general term for the mountain-building process of folding, faulting, magmatism, and metamorphism?
What determines whether a rock deforms in a brittle fashion versus a ductile fashion?
temperature, rate of deformation, and rock type
Which of the following statements about the asthenosphere is false?
it was discovered because it is a low velocity zone for seismic waves
What type of forces dominate at transform plate margins?
Which of the following statements about earthquakes is true?
Earthquakes can be caused by normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting
At a seismograph station, what type of seismic waves arrive before the surface waves?
Both p waves and s waves
The shear strength of a slope can be reduced by:
weather, water, removing vegetation
In 2005 a downstream backup dam was constructed for Lake Murray to protect against dam failure during:
Where is the largest mass of ice on Earth located?
Sinkholes are a possible danger in regions underlain by what type of bedrock?
Which of the following conditions maximize the rate of groundwater flow in an unconfined aquifer?
high permeability, large water table slope angle
The volume of water flowing past a given point in a given time is called the
A planet with an atmosphere containing greenhouse gases radiates solar energy back into space ___ than a planet with no atmosphere
Creep and permafrost are very slow and have minimal economic impact.
Which of the following geologic materials is least likely to form a good aquifer?
Which of the following will cause sea level to rise?
melting of ice shit
What type of glacier covers Antarctica?
Which of the following statements is true?
warm air can hold more water vapor than cool air
Layers that transmit groundwater are called
Glacial periods tend to coincide with periods of ___ eccentricity in the Earth's orbit
When did the last ice age end?
about 10,000 years ago
Tilted trees and power poles may indicate slow down slope creep
Suspended load includes all material
temporarily or permanently suspended in the flow
Which of the following is not caused by overpumping groundwater?
raising of the land surface
The Panama arc collided with South America
separating the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, forming a land bridge between the Americas, uplifting the Eastern Cordillera mountain belt of Colombia
Which of the following terms is a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air as a proportion of the maximum amount the air could hold at the same temperature?
Which of the following statements regarding floods is true?
A 50-year flood has a 2% chance of occurring in any one year
About what percentage of water on Earth is fresh water?
Chemical analysis of ice cores demonstrates that as temperature increases, concentrations of atmospheric _____.
carbon dioxide and methane both increase
Permeability is the _____.
ability of a solid to allow fluids to pass through
The main force that drives glacial flow is _____.
In the "snowball Earth hypothesis" what is proposed to have ended the "snowball earth"
buildup of volcanic gases
There are many earthquakes in the northern Andes because
the Caribbean, Nazca, and South American plates are converging; ocean crust is subducting beneath South America
The velocity of a river multiplied by the cross-sectional area of the river channel yields the river's
The biosphere is comprised of
all organisms living near the Earth's surface
Which of the geologic features listed are characteristic of karst topography?
sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams
Curves and bends in a stream channel are called
Which of the following sandstones will have the highest porosity?
a well-sorted, uncemented sandstone
The largest freshwater reservoir in the hydrologic cycle is
Over the last 150 years CO2 levels in the atmosphere have
During glacial maximas
ice volumes are high and temperatures are low
The greenhouse effect is caused by
carbon dioxide and water vapor that trap heat radiating from Earth's surface
In what type of rock do most caves form?
When constructed in 1930, it was the world's largest earth dam
Lake Murray Dam
The most common chemical element in the Earth's atmosphere is
Which of the following has dramatically changed the carbon cycle over the past 150 years?
burning fossil fuels
GPS geodesy can be used to:
navigate your car, steer a cruise missle, measure plate motions
Which of the following combinations make for the best groundwater reservoir?
High permeability and high porosity
Volcanic processes transport gases and aerosols from the ____ to the ____
A glacier is receding if
the amount of ablation exceeds the amount of accumulations
The angle of repose (the steepest angle that a soil slope can maintain) is:
25 to 40 degrees
Which of the following is an extremely slow-moving sheet of ice that covers vast land areas?
a continental glacier
What is the driving force for groundwater flow?
Which of the following terms describes an accumulation of rocky, sandy, or clayey material deposited at the end of a glacier
Which of the following unfractured rocks has the highest porosity?
The ___ hypothesis proposes that the entire Earth was covered with ice during the late Precambrian
What powers the hydrologic cycle?
Which of the following particles is the most easily eroded from the bed of a stream?
The Global Positioning System satellite constellation consists of:
What are glacial striations?
grooves created by rocks scratching against bedrock at the base of a glacier
What is the Earth's albedo?
the fraction of solar energy reflected by the Earth's surface
The vast majority of the world's usable fresh water occurs in
Mudflows can move as fast as ____ km per hour
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