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Social Psych 275 Exam 4 Study Guide
Terms in this set (35)
When are stereotypes harmful?
If the stereotype blinds us to individual differences within a class of people, it can become maladaptive, unfair, and harmful both to the person holding the stereotypes and the individuals lumped into that category.
Outwardly act unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudice attitudes.
It's subtle and ambiguous,best studies with subtle, unobtrusive measure, prejudice persists at the automatic level.
Six conditions necessary to reduce prejudice when there is contact between groups
1. Mutual interdependence
2. A common goal
3. Equal status
4. Informal, one-on-on contact
5. Contacts with several members of the outgroup
6. Social norms of equality
What conditions facilitate controlled processing of stereotypes?
People can suppress their prejudice due to normative pressures because if a group doesn't accept a certain stereotype, then that one person who wants to belong to the group can't outwardly express his/her prejudice.
Thought suppression: the more you suppress and don't want to think of something, the more you do.
People tends to have more energy to suppress these prejudices in the morning than afternoon.
How to overcome stereotype threat?
1. Stereotype threat: Apprehension (a worry, concern, negative anxious state) about confirming the existing negative stereotype of one's group in a performance situation.
2. Reducing stereotype threat:
-Change mindset-- identity safety
-Exposure to successful role models from the stereotyped group
-Reminder that abilities are not fixed, but can be learned or activated.
Incremental mindset: practice more, better at doing.
Fixed mindset: this is always going to be what happens.
-Anxiety about standardized tests is normal.
What is one common result of being the target of prejudice?
Self-fulfilling Prophecy: an expectation of one's own or another person's behavior that comes true because of the tendency of the person holding it to act in ways that bring it about.
The black and white doll study where the black kids think the white dolls are better--low self esteem.
The tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the group's expectations and gain acceptance.
How does normative conformity contribute to prejudice?
People can conform to the prejudices of others and to the pressures of institutional discrimination without being prejudiced themselves, just as they can suppress their own prejudices when the norms and situation demand.
Bodenhausen and the ultimate attribution error and stereotypes about violence
Ultimate Attribution Error: occurs when ingroup members attribute negative outgroup behavior to dispositional causes and attribute positive outgroup behavior to situational factors
We rely on our perceptions of what people with similar characteristics have been like in the past to help us determine how to react to someone else with the same ones.
What did the research by Saltzman (1988) say about the characteristics that men and women find attractive in a friend vs. a dating partner?
Men and women want to date and befriend androgynous people the most.
Women wanted to date feminine men the second most.
Men preferred feminine men the least as friends.
Hostile sexists hold negative stereotypes of women: women are inferior to men because they are inherently less intelligent, less competent, less brave, less capable of math and science, more empathetic, etc.
Benevolent sexists hold positive stereotypes of women: kinder than men, more empathetic, etc.
How does illusory correlation perpetuate stereotypic thinking?
Illusory correlation: Tendency to see relationships between events that are actually unrelated.
Remember distinctive things as being related.
Rare: Negative events and numerical minorities and you pair these together to perpetuate stereotypic thinking.
-Often comes before applied
-"Why do people do what they do?"
-Underlying mechanisms responsible for behavior (e.g., basic research on perception, inference, and emotion).
-Sometimes no immediate applied benefits.
-Specific Problem (e.g., improve health habits, reduce prejudice)
-Not as much concern with psychological process
Only by conducting experiments can we hope to discover which solutions will work the best.
Real-World interventions of CISD: might do harm the good. Researchers discovered this by doing experiments. Otherwise, the CISD is going to be keep being implemented.
Cialdini and colleagues reducing littering by reminding people of injunctive and descriptive norms
In this case, littering is not prevented by injunctive norms when people think what is acceptable or not because people still litter.
People who saw one piece of litter was most likely to draw people's attention to the fact that most people had not littered, making people less likely themselves to litter.
Another way of using descriptive norms is to tell people what most others do--particularly in situations in which you can't directly observe others' behavior.
How does culture relate to perceived control and wellbeing?
The relationship between perceived control and distress is more important to members of eastern cultures than to members of asian cultures. Asians report that perceived control is less important to them than Westerners do and that there is less of a relationship between perceived control and psychological distress among Asians than westerners. In western culture, where individualism and personal achievement are prized, people are more likely to be distressed if they feel that they cannot personally control their destinies. A lowered sense of control is less of an issue in Asian cultures, because Asians place greater value on collectivism and putting the social group ahead of individual goals.
What makes people happy?
It's more important to have satisfying relationships and help others and enjoy your work.
Experiences--activities that people engage in--make people happier than things.
When people are in a state of flow when they are enjoying what they're doing, they are "lost" in a task that is challenging but attainable.
Money and Happiness
Money doesn't necessarily buy happiness. As long as you make enough money to obtain the basic necessities (food, shelter, security).
According to Kurt Lewin, why is it important to have good theories?
If you know how something happens, the basics behind it. you can try and predict and find out about a solution to a problem, and apply it to real world problems.
What are the primary ways to encourage people to be more sustainable?
1. Make a public commitment: inducing hypocrisy: makes it harder to back down; establishes a sense of group identity and solidarity (more likely to act for the good of the group)
2. Keep track of consumption: make energy loss vivid (houses with water meters use less water).
3. Descriptive norms against littering: one piece of litter on a clean floor works the best. People overestimate the influence of injunctive norms (what people think others should or should not do).
4. Remove small barriers: provide people with a recycling bin, more likely to recycle even without strong pro-environmental attitudes.
How does competition increase environmentally- conscious behavior?
Social comparisons would motivate people to do better than others.
How can inducing hypocrisy lead people to change their behavior?
Participants who were made to feel like hypocrites changed their behavior so that they could feel good about themselves.
What are the factors that seem to be most related to eyewitness accuracy?
Own-race Bias, reconstructive memory, source monitoring, recovered memories, false memory syndrome.
Memory acquisition and accuracy
The process by which people notice and pay attention to information in their environment.
Greater stress: worse memory for details. Crime victims and witnesses are under a lot of stress.
Focus attention mostly on weapon, less on suspect's face features which can lead to falsely identifying suspects.
Own-Race Bias and accuracy
Own-race bias: better able to recognize faces of our own race than those of other races. The more contact with members of our own race teaches how to distinguish one individual from another.
Same-race faces: attend to individuating features that distinguish that face from other members of their group.
Different-race faces: attend to features that distinguish that face from their own race, less attending to individuating features.
Therefore, people of the same race can more accurately identify suspects within their race.
Change Blindness and accuracy
Witnesses are often subject under change blindness: expectations influence attention. We are particularly poor at noticing the unexpected. Our expectation can override reality.
Therefore, witnesses can falsely identify someone because they see what they expected to see, not the reality.
Storage and Accuracy
Storage: the process by which people maintain in memory information they have acquired from the environment.
Reconstructive memory: memories of an event become distorted by information encountered after the event. Information obtained after we witness an event can change our memories of the event.
Memory Distortions: Misleading questions can have a significant impact on memory. Misleading questions can change people's minds about: how fast car was going, whether broken glass was at the scene of an accident, whether a traffic light was green or red, whether the robber had a mustache.
Retrieval and Accuracy
Retrieval: the process by which people recall information stored in their memories.
Witnesses often choose the person in a lineup who most resembles the criminal, even if the resemblance is quite weak.
Confidence is not a good predictor of accuracy. It should be stable, but confidence goes up if others shared choice, down if other chose differently.
Outgroup Homogeneity Bias
The perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other (homogeneous) than they really are, as well as more similar than members of the in group are.
Verbalization influencing eyewitness accuracy
It might seem that another way to improve the accuracy of eyewitness identification would be to tell people to write down a description of the suspect as soon as they can, to help them remember what they saw. Studies by Jonathan Schooler how that trying to put an image of a face into words can actually make people's memory worse.
Procedures to adopt to avoid false identifications
1. Make sure everyone in the lineup resembles the witness's description of the suspect.
2. Tell the witness that the person suspected of the crime may or may not be in the lineup.
3. Make sure that the police officer administering the lineup does not know which person in the lineup is the suspect.
4. If using photographs of people, present the pictures sequentially, one at a time, instead of simultaneously, or all at once.
5. Avoid using composite face programs (computer programs designed to reconstruct a suspect's face according to witnesses' descriptions.
6. Don't count on witnesses knowing whether their selections were biased.
Types of control we can have over our lives
Internal Locus of Control: Believe one has personal control over life outcomes.
External Locus of Control: Belief that life outcomes are out of one's control.
Nursing home studies and control
Perceived Control: the belief that we can influence our environment in ways that determine whether we experience positive or negative outcomes.
First nursing home study: people were either told that they have control over what to watch, taking care of their plants, and other things, OR they had no control over all. The people who had control lived longer and happier.
Second nursing home study: people have control or not when and how long college students can visit them. During the time when students visited, people who had control lived happier and took less medicine. Once the students left due to breaks, that control is taken away and the people who once had control had decreased health and were less happy, took more pills, and died early.
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