Chapter 7: Trait Theories
Terms in this set (38)
an enduring psychological characteristic of an individual; or a type of psychological construct that refers to such characteristics
Allport's concept for a disposition that is so pervasive and outstanding in a person's life that virtually every act is traceable to its influence
Allport's concept for a disposition to behave in a particular way that is relevant to few situations
Allport's concept that a motive may become independent of its origins; in particular, motives in adults may become independent of their earlier basis in tension reduction
a statistical method for analyzing correlations among a set of personality tests or test items in order to determine those variables or test responses that increase or decrease together; used in the development of personality tests and of some trait theorists (e.g., Cattel, Eysenck)
In Cattel's theory, behaviors that appear to be linked to one another but do no in fact increase and decrease together
ability, temperament, and dynamic traits
In Cattel's trait theory, these categories of traits capture the major aspects of personality
life record data or information concerning the person that can be obtained from his or her life history or life record
In Cattel's theory, personality data obtained from questionnaires
In Cattel's theory, objective test data or information about personality obtained from observing behavior in miniature situations
Emotional and mood changes (e.g., anxiety, depression, fatigue) that Cattel suggested may influence the behavior at a given time; the assessment of both traits and ____ is suggested to predict behavior
behavior considered to be appropriate for a person's place or status in society; emphasized by Cattel as one of a number of variables that limit the influence of personality variables on behavior relative to situational variables
a higher-order or secondary factor representing a higher level of organization of traits than the initial factors derived from factor analysis
In Eysenck's theory, one end of the introversion-extraversion dimension of personality characterized by a disposition to be quiet, reserved, reflective, and risk avoiding
In Eysenck's theory, one end of the introversion-extraversion dimension of personality characterized by a disposition to be sociable, friendly, impulsive, and risk taking
In Eysenck's theory, a dimension of personality defined by stability and low anxiety at one end and by instability and high anxiety at the other end
In Eysenck's theory, a dimension of personality defined by a tendency to be solitary and insensitive at one end and to accept social custom and care about others at the other end
By assigning someone the trait nice, we mean that that individual is, generally speaking, nice across _____.
a) time only
b) situations only
c) time and situations
d) neither time nor situations
Generally speaking, trait theories are interested in the way individuals differ from ___________.
a) themselves across time
b) themselves across situations
c) other people
d) other species
Trait theorists use trait constructs to serve three scientific functions: description, prediction, and ____________.
Of the three scientific functions of trait constructs, the one that raises controversy is _____________.
Allport distinguished between cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary dispositions. These distinctions are an example of the concept that personality is organized into ____________.
Allport is unique amongst trait theorists because he endorses a(n) ________ to measurement, whereas they tend to favor ___________ approaches.
a) idiographic; experimental
b) idiographic; nomothetic
c) nomothetic; experimental
d) nomothetic; idiographic
Psychologists use a statistical tool called factor analysis to help them to_________________.
a) identify a basic set of traits that succinctly describes the major ways in which people differ
b) identify a small number of factors that summarize the intercorrelations among a large number of traits
c) reduce the thousands of traits needed to describe personality into a more manageable set
d) all of the above
Though factor analysis can identify the factors, it is up to the therapist to interpret them. This suggests that the factors are _________.
In Cattell's theory, emotional stability is an example of a __________ trait, whereas intelligence is an example of a ___________ trait.
a) temperament; ability
b) temperament; dynamic
c) ability; temperament
d) ability; dynamic
Cattell turned to investigations that made use of OT-data out of concern for __________, a potential problem in using self-report data.
c) emotional stability
Cattell came up with the concepts of ______ and ______ to account for the fact that people's behavior is dynamic.
a) sources; roles
b) states; roles
c) states; schemas
d) sources; schemas
Eysenck recognized that trait theory can break out of the circularity of its reasoning by going beyond the mere use of words and identifying __________systems that correspond to traits.
Eysenck used ___________ factor analysis to identify "superfactors."
Before he added a third superfactor, Eysenck's analyses identified two superfactors: extroversion/introversion and _________________.
Eysenck's lemon drop test was an OT-data procedure designed to distinguish ____________ from ___________.
a) neurotics from calm people
b) neurotics from extroverts
c) introverts from extroverts
d) introverts from calm people
The fact that the dimension of introversion-extraversion is found cross-culturally supports Eysenck's theorizing about the ___________ basis of traits.
Eysenck's prediction, that higher levels of extraversion would be associated with lower levels of cortical arousal, was _____ Kehoe et al.'s fMRI evidence
a) wholly supported by
b) only partly supported by
c) absolutely unsupported by
d) irrelevant to
Kehoe et al.'s fMRI evidence indicated that people higher in neuroticism displayed higher levels of brain activity in a region in the front of the brain, the prefrontal cortex, whereas Eysenck had anticipated that neuroticism would be associated with variations in:
a) the autonomic nervous system
b) the limbic system
c) the cerebellum
d) reticular activating system
Unfortunately for Eysenckian theory, research has not consistently supported his physiological theory of _________.
Which of the following is not true of the distinction between introverts and extroverts?
a) Introverts do better in school than do extraverts
b) Introverts prefer for vocations involving interactions with other people
c) Extraverts enjoy explicit sexual and aggressive humor more than do introverts
d) Extraverts are more active sexually, in terms of frequency and different partners, than introverts.
In spite of his focus on the biological bases of traits, Eysenck was __________ individuals' capacity to change.
a) pessimistic about
b) flustered by
c) optimistic about
d) uninterested in
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