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Justinian's Code
collection of all laws of ancient Rome, handbook for students, model for western European leaders and international law
sole ruler with absolute authority
emperor is higher over leaders of the church
successor to Muhammad (sunni)
divinely inspired religious leaders able to interpret the Qur'an (shiite)
slender tower to the mosques
muslim ruler
social mobility
ability to move up in social classes, down through religious, militaristic, scholarly achievement
the art of beautiful writing
land ruled by sultans
local Hindu ruler, became more acceptant
new religion founded by Nanak
religious communities, had own leaders that were in charge of some law, and education, bottom ring of burreacracy
elite force of ottoman empire
king of Safavid dynasty
moved the capital of the Byzantine empire to Constantinople
revived ancient rome by recovering lands that had been overrun by invaders; rebuilt church of Hagia Sophia (holy wisdom), reformed law, combined political and spiritual authority
general who conquered Italy, north Africa, Iberian Peninsula, (Spain and Portugal)
Justinian's wife, shrewd politician, advisor and co ruler, convinced Justinian to stay in the empire in a time of invasion
Mehmet II
led Ottoman and besieged Constantinople for 2 months
Anna Comnena
first important female historian Byzantine princess, portrayed crusaders as greedy barbarians, wrote the Alexiad
Abu Bakr
Muhammad's father in law, early convert to Islam, first caliph, some muslims refused to follow- withdrew from Islam, united once again and has a remarkable military campaign, converted remaining tribes to Islam, ended warfare and united them under 1 leader
son in law of Muhammad, first imam
daughter of Muhammad
Abu al-Abbas
shiite and non muslims supported him, created Abbasid dynasty, descendant of Muhammad's uncle
Genghis Khan
leader of the Mongols
grandson of Ghenghis Khan, looted Bagdad, killed the last emperor of Abbasid
Ibn Khaldun
stressed economics and social structure as causes of historical events, warned about common causes of error in historical writing, urged historians to trust sources after thorough investigation and research,
mathematician, developed algebra because he wrote a book about it, first standard textbook in algebra
Muhammad al-Razi
head physician, wrote books on medicine, believed that if a patient had hope they would recover quicker,
Ibn Sina
wrote the canon of medicine techniques, practices, and studies all over the world contained inside his book, new way to treat cataracts, new medicines mixed with gums and sweet syrups
developed the religion Sikhism, blended Hindu and islam traditions
head of the mongol Turkish invasion, founded Mughal dynasty, descended from Genghis Khan and Tamerline
Akbar the Great
Babur's grandson, ruled strong central government, supported Hindu through tolerance, opened government jobs to Hindus, used payed officials, modernized the army, encouraged trade, treated Hindu princes as partners, standardized weights and measures
Akbar's grandson, weak leader, wife ruled for him
Nur Jahan
Wife of Akbar, most powerful Indian woman leader
Shah Jahan
Akbar's great grandson, son of Jahangir, built the Taj Mahal for his deceased wife.
Suleiman the Magnificent
brilliant general, modernized the army through muskets and canons, extended into Eastern Europe, protector of sacred places of Meca and Medina, absolute power
Selim II
weak ruler, son of Suleiman, not interested in government so left it in the hands of the ministers which left it corrupt
Shah Abbas the Great
centralized the government, created powerful armies, sought out alliances with European states that feared Ottomans, reduced taxed on farmers and herders, tolerated non Muslims, revived glory of Persia, united Persia, encouraged growth of industry
Why is Constantinople considered "new Rome"?
-lots of trade because if your going from Asia to Europe you have to travel through it
-center of trade for land and sea
-got it's name from ancient city Byzantium
-Hippodrome is equivalent to the circus maximus (race track for chariot racing)
-new capital of Eastern Rome
How did Byzantium flourish under Justinian?
-Belisarius conquered North Africa, Italy, and part of Iberian Peninsula
-while conquering defensives where low and they lost treasury and land against Turkish
-Justinian's code
-they had a fire and rebuilt
-built the Hagia Sophia ("church of holy wisdom", great dome and largest dome w marble and silk tapestry)
-the church
-emperor chose patriarch
-emperor was Christ's coruler on Earth
-economy was
quite strong because the peasants worked very hard
-economy was strong during Justinian's rule- peasants worked extremely hard
-military was strong because of their secret weapon which was greek fire (a liquid that would explode on contact and couldn't be put out with water)
Why did the Byzantine Empire fall?
-succession struggle over who should be leader
-court intrigue who was sleeping with who's wife
-1st: The seljuk Turks were threatening the pilgrimage rout to Jerusalem
-4th: Catholic and Orthodox were not getting along, Venetians gained trade routes
-Mehmet 2 besieged Constantinople for 2 months (surrounded the city) and starved them into submission
What is the lasting heritage of the Byzantine Empire?
-enduring symbol of Roman civilization because they kept the practices in place
-strong influence with Hellenistic culture
-religious icons and mosaics
-architecture style was arches and big domes
-blended Greco-Roman with Middle Eastern architecture style
-preserved Greco-Roman works of literature
-Anna Comnena
What was the trouble with Constantinople? (Documentary)
-her tradition was Roman and it's too far,
-trying to be what they were not
What trade routes did Constantinople control? (Documentary)
-Steppes and Cauces to the Meditteranean
-Danu to the Euphrates River Valley
What distinguishes Western government of the time from Constantinople? (Doc.)
-BE has one ruler and one system of law
-West has lots of laws=not unified and no central government with lots of dinner
Why is diplomacy important? (Documentary)
it is cheaper than war because when it works your enemies end up doing all the fighting for you but when it doesn't it buys you more time
How were Muslims able to conquer many lands?
-After Muhammad's death they had to find a sucessor
-crisis was that tribes withdrew their support for Islam but Baker convinced them to reunite and he reunited all arab tribes
-conversion where all arab tribes united under Islam and Baker
-the first 4 caliphs conquered Middle East from the BE and defeated all of Persia
What is the Dome of the Rock and its importance?
-where Muhammad acended to Heaven
-It's in Jerusalem
-the location of the temple of Soloman
-Abraham built the alter to sacrifice Ishmael here
-sights of the second temple because the first was destroyed by Rome

-holiest shrine of Islam
How did the Umayyad dynasty rise?
-extended Arab rule from Spain and Morroco to the IRV which aloud Islam to spread throughout this region
-very successful because of their bold and efficient fighting style
-successful because BE and Persia was weakened
-they had a religious goal to spread Islam
-the people they conquered they welcomed as liberators, the nonmuslims could practice their faith but had to pay a tax, didn't steal wealth from conquered people, and arab settlers stayed separate and formed upper class
How did the Abbasid dynasty rise and fall?
-Abu al Abbas
-all muslims are equal
-encouraged people to convert to Islam
-stopped military conquests
-set up bureaucracy
-2nd leader moved capital to Baghdad
-Baghdad was city of peace, larger and wealthier than Constantinople and had huge circular wall, gift of god, and paradise on earth
-had minarets
-Spain had independent dynasty rising and last remaining Umayyad formed independent state in Spain
-rising up within the Abbasid and formed independent states then broke away
-created an empire on the fertile crescent and took over Baghdad
-Genghis Khan moved mongols into southwest asia
-Haulage the son of Genghis luded Baghdad and killed last emperor
How did trade play a role in Muslim civilization?
-highly respected because Muhammad had been one
-shared ideas, technologies, products, and culture
-in the middle of the Silk Road and from or to Sahara through them
-East Africa and India
-Indian number system= Arabic numerals
-Arabic became common language
-privately owned banks and currency exchange
-early checks
-the prices are set for the first time because they established guilds and the leader of the guild would set price
-learned better farming and irrigation techniques=surplus of food
-able to grow crash crops like medicine, luxury spices, and cotton
-present in Muslim civilization but Islam discouraged
What influenced Muslim art and architecture?
Roman, Greek, Indian, Persian, and Religion

-oral tradition themes of chivalry and romance
-Omar Khayyah
-gathered adapted stories and collected into 1001 nights
-developed unique style due to religious code where you couldn't depict people or God due to Islamic lac
-primarily based on geometric shapes, colors, flowers, and wildlife
-characteristics of domes, minarets, and arches
-calligraphy was used to decorate buildings
-frequently passages from Qur'ran
What are some advances in medicine made by Muslim civilizations?
-boys and girls received education so they could learn to read and write and study the Qur'ran
-Baghdad was a major center of learning
-advances being made in philosophy, math, and medicine
-preserved western knowledge by translating into Arabic
-Ibn Rushd and Ibn Khaldun
-studied eclipses, earth rotation, and calculated circumference of Earth
-developed navigation tool called sexton
-al Khwarizmi
-physician and pharmacist had to pass an exam before they could practice and they would travel to rural areas and jails because they are sick
-set up first hospitals similar to emergency rooms or minute clinics
-Muhammad al-Razi
-Ibn Sina
-developed new technique to treat cataracts
-created flavor medicines with gums and syrups
How did Muslim and Hindu traditions clash and blend?
-Buddhism declined bc a lot bc Buddhist monasteries were invaded during attacks
-Hindu uses images of the different Gods and Muslims saw it as ideal worship and polytheistic
-Hinduism had multiple sacred texts vs Islam with one
-Hinduism is a lot older than Islam
-Hinduism has caste system and Islam is all about equality
-Dehli sultans begin to see Hinduism as monotheistic and accepted and allowed them to practice if they paid a tax
-started becoming more accepted
-developed new langues called Urdu which is a blend of Persian, Atabic, and Delhi
- Nanuk developed new religion called sikhism which blended traditions of Hindu and Islam
-considered new prophet (new prophet=new religion)
-the converts from the lower lass helped blend
How did Akbar the great strengthen Mughal India?
7 Changes
1. tolerated hinduism and ended tax on nonmuslims
2. opened government jobs to Hindu
3. encouraged industry and international trade
4. treated Hindu princes as partners
5. changed paid official instead of Hereditary official
6. modernized the army
7. standardized weights and measures
What is the significance of the Taj Mahal?
voted 7 new wonders of the world and crown jewel of Muslim art in India
What was Ottoman culture like?
-head of the government=sultan and they have absolute power and a grand vizier and counsel helped him rule
-based on sheria and ruler edicts (resembles presidential oders)
-sultan, vizier, and edicts are the rulers of the bureacracy
1. Men of the Sword and Men of the Pen (soldiers and scholars)
2. Men of Negotion (merchants and people that deal with money)
3. Men of Husbandry (farmers and herders)
-separated by religion
-recruited young kids and the non muslims
-the non muslim boys would be soldiers and girls would be slaves and tax on slaves
-women recruits would have to become household slaves and boys were converted to Islam and sent to military school
-poetry was influenced by Persians and Arabs but adapted to Turkish which is the language of the Ottoman Empire
-illumination was influenced by Persia and done on manuscripts and is ellaborating designs on a page and around the border usually
-use gold leaf for light to draw attention
How did Abbas the Great strengthen the Safavid Empire?
-Shite Muslim Empire and dynasty that united Persia to Shite resium and didn't like the Sunni Ottomans
-Shan Abbas the Great
-made a powerful military off of janazaries and centralized government
-alliances with other European states
-reduced taxes on farmers and herders
-encouraged growth of industry

-Isfahan was the international silk trade
Know the plot of Aladdin.
How does the Ottoman Empire fulfill the characteristics of civilization? AND What do you think is their most important effect on history? Explain