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Honors US History Constitution, Articles of Confederation, American Revolution Test
Review of Constitution, Articles of Confederation, American Revolution
Terms in this set (43)
A person who supported the British during the American Revolution
A person who supported the colonists during the American Revolution
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809) also published The Rights of Man and Common Sense.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies. King George never read it.
Declaration of Independance
this document was adopted by the second continetal congress on July 4, 1776. it established the 13 colonies as independant states, free from rule by great britain. thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document
Fundamental rights inherent to being human that every person therefore possesses that cannot be taken away by government or another entity. This phrase was used in the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Declaration of Independence. Inalienable is sometimes spelled unalienable.
Compact Theory of Government
The idea that the Constitution was a compact of sovereign states, and when the government exceeded its limited powers, the states had the right to take action. This idea is reflected in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Battle of Bunkerhill
Really happened on Breeds Hill, Massachusetts, first battle of the Revolutionary War. June 17th 1775. Boston was being besieged by thousands of American militia. The British were trying to keep control of the city and control its valuable sea ports. The British decided to take two hills, Bunker and Breeds, in order to gain a tactical advantage. The American forces heard about it and went to defend the hills.
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states, this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Division of Powers
the separation of duties and responsibilities between the states and the national government
Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. The Constitution states that congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in Article I.
Powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state governments, such as the power to levy taxes.
Powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states.
The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution.
The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which authorizes congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
"Necessary and Proper"
Clause in Article I, Section 8, of the U.S. Constitution granting Congress the power to enact all laws that are "necessary and proper" for carrying out those responsibilities specifically delegated to it. Also referred to as the implied powers clause.
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house.
Large State (Virginia) Plan
The idea that states representation in congress should be based off of their population. (This and the Small State (New Jersey) Plan led to the Great Compromise)
Small State (New Jersey) Plan
The idea that all states should have equal representation in congress (This and the Large State (Virginia) Plan led to the Great Compromise)
one of many compromises achieved during the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Northerners wanted to restrict foreign competition for raw good and finished products by taxing both imports and exports. Southerners opposed taxes on exports since their economy depended heavily on cheap agricultural exports. The compromise allowed the federal government to only tax imports
Three Fifths Compromise
the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves,This compromise increased the political power of Southern slave-holding states by increasing their political representation. In 1790, Southern states accounted for 45 percent of the seats in Congress, up from 38 percent in the Continental Congress prior to the Constitution's ratification,
A body of electors chosen by the voters in each state to elect the President and Vice President of the U.S. The number of electors in each state is equal to its number of representatives in both houses of the U.S. Congress.
To be ruled by a mob. An example of people who used this method would be the American colonists. When England would impose taxes and acts, such as the Stamp Act, the colonists would become angered and protest it by forming mobs and doing such things as ransacking houses and stealing the money of stamp agents. The Stamp Act was eventually nullified because all the stamp agents had been forced to resign leaving no one to uphold it.
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
The Federalist Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation
An uprising in Massachusetts, Daniel Shay led a group of backcountry farmers and revolutionary war vets whose farms had been foreclosed on due to unpaid debt, these debtors demanded the states issue paper money, taxes and postpone property takeovers
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
According to the compact theory of the Union the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution.
complete independence and self-government (of a country); supremacy of authority; power to govern, states power over federal government
the formal, constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of Congress, thus preventing their becoming law without further congressional action.
a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government
Opposed to a strong central government; saw undemocratic tendencies in the Constitution and insisted on the inclusion of the Bill of Rights. Included Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, and Patrick Henry.
1787 each state had their own ratification conventions needed to be approved in at least 9 states before it could go into effect, Madison, Hamilton, & John Jay wrote the Federalist Essays to encourage ratification/speed up the process of ratifying the Constitution
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.