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Sociology Exam 3

Why did the "XYY" chromosome theory fall out of favor as an explanation for criminal behavior?

Research did not support the theory.

Differential association theory was developed by sociologist ________.

Edwin Sutherland

Based on differential association theory, what is the MOST likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?

They are from families that have a history of being involved in crime.

According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?

When we fear punishment from authorities such as parents or the court system.

Cloward and Ohlin addressed the street hustler as a role model for youth and the methods used to earn easy money through a life of crime. What did they call this career path of delinquency?

illegitimate opportunity structure

The sociologist responsible for developing one of the first control theories that addressed the inner controls of the individual and outer controls of society was ________.

Walter Reckless

The crime with the highest increase among women between 1992 and 2009 was ________.

Stolen property

What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?

Social control

The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?


According to Cloward and Ohlin, what is the underlying cause of deviance and delinquency in unstable slums of a city?

Illigitimate opportunity structures

How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the workforce who are subject to layoffs?

Working Poor

Based on the 2011 edition of the Statistical Abstract in the United States, the state with the lowest rate of violent crime in America is ________, while the state with the highest rate of violent crime is ________.

Maine; Nevada

The term white-collar crime was coined by sociologist ________ to refer to crimes that people of respectable social status commit in the course of their occupation.

Edwin Sutherland

According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.


Because of ________, deviance is often seen as mental sickness rather than problematic behavior.

Medicalization of deviance

The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as ___________.


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