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A&P Respiratory System 1
Terms in this set (90)
gas exchange (O2 and CO2)
(aerobic respiration) Mitochondria consume O2 to produce ATP and produce CO2 as a by product.
Steps in Respiration
Pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration.
Breathing, Inhalation and exhalation.
(inspiration) Breathing in; O2 rich air flow into lungs.
(Expiration) Breathing out; CO2 rich air flows out of lungs.
Exchange occurring in the lungs.
Exchange occurring in systemic tissues.
Other Functions of the Respiratory System
Conditions air (warms, moisturizes), olfaction, phonation (sound production), Protection (prevents debris), and acid base homeostasis.
Upper Respiratory Tract
Nose, nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, and trachea.
Lower Respiratory Tract
Bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar structures, and lungs.
Functions in conditioning air, olfactory, phonation.
internal nose (within nasal cavity)
divides nasal cavity into right and left halves. Posterior, vomer and ethmoid bones. Anterior, hyaline cartilage.
Increases mucosal surface area to condition air dorsal and ventral turbinates.
3 tunnels formed by the turbinates.
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Many blood vessels and mucous glands in connective tissue beneath the epithelium. Blood warms and mucous moisturizes the air.
Sense of smell.
Resonating chambers; frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses. Lined with nasal epithelium and helps warm and moistens air
Throat, passage for respiratory and digestive tracts funnel of bone and muscle. Mucous membrane lines surface.
3 Divisions of Pharynx
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
Respiratory passageway, dorsal to soft palate. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells (nasal epithelium)
Digestive passageway from mouth, ventral to soft palate. Stratified squamous epithelium, protects from abrasion.
Respiratory and digestive passageway. Stratified squamous epithelium, protects from abrasion. Ventrally opens into larynx, dorsally opens into esophagus.
Clusters of MALT, lymphatic tissue.
Cartilage and ligament tube between laryngopharynx and trachea. Anchored to hyoid apparatus at base of tongue.
Functions of Larynx
Phonation, produces sound waves. Protects airway from aspiration.
inhaling foreign material.
Large, cranial hyaline cartilage ring. Connected to hyoid by ligaments. (main part)
Smaller, caudal ring of hyaline cartilage.
Leaf shape elastic cartilage near base of tongue. Folds down to cover glottis, keeps food and fluids out of trachea.
Opening into larynx
Attached to thyroid and cricoid cartilages, elevate the larynx.
Elastic connective tissue bands within the glottis. Vibrate to produce sounds.
(2) Hyaline cartilages attached to vocal cords.
Move arytenoids and alter tension on vocal cords, alter pitch of voice. Can pivot apart to open or close the glottis to protect airway and hold breath.
Stimulated by liquid or solid in larynx.
Mucosal folds lateral to vocal cords in non-ruminant species.
Pouches between vocal cords and vestibular folds (roaring in horses).
Epithelium of Larynx
Cranial to vocal cords is stratified squamous epithelium. Caudal to vocal cords is Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells. Cilia sweep debris up to pharynx.
Windpipe, tube of hyaline cartilage and ligaments that extends from the larynx to the bronchi. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells.
C shaped Hyaline Cartilage Rings
Prevent collapse of trachea. On the ventral side of the trachea.
Smooth muscle completes rings dorsally. Can adjust diameter of trachea. Allows esophagus to compress trachea when swallowing
Large, loose trachealis muscle (genetic).
Trachea splits into 2 main stem bronchi.
Branching airways that carry air to the alveoli. Histology of bronchi is similar to trachea except cartilage is reduced as bronchi get smaller.
(Primary) Right and left branches to Right and left lungs.
(secondary) Branches to individual lung lobes.
Tiny branches of smallest bronchi. Epithelial cells get shorter and lose cilia & goblet cells. Cartilage decreases and smooth muscle increases as bronchioles get smaller.
End of bronchioles, smooth muscle.
Bronchodilation, increases airflow.
Bronchoconstriction, decreases airflow.
Irritants or allergies cause bronchoconstriction and inflammation of airways, making breathing difficult.
Final branches of respiratory tree where gas exchange begins.
Grape like cluster of alveoli.
Tiny sacs at end of airways, surrounded by capillary beds. main site for external respiration (gas exchange).
Very thin membrane where gas exchange occurs.
Layers of Respiratory Membrane
Alveolar wall, simple squamous epithelium (type 1 cell). Thin basement membrane containing elastic fibers. Endothelium of capillaries, simple squamous epithelium.
(type 2) Cuboidal secretory cells.
Oily secretion that lubricates alveolar surface. Lipids reduce surface tension, which prevents alveoli collapsing.
Bronchial tree + alveolar structures.
Divides the thoracic cavity into 2 pleural cavities.
Contain pleural fluid (lubricates lung surface)
Excess fluid in pleural cavity.
Inflammation of pleural membranes, causes friction and pain.
Broad end of lungs near diaphragm.
Narrow, cranial end of lungs.
Entry point for bronchi, nerves, blood & lymph vessels. Fissures divide lungs into lobes.
4 lobes; Cranial, middle, caudal, and accessory lobes. (horses right lung 1 lobe + accessory)
2 lobes; Cranial and caudal lobes. (horses left lung 1 lobe)
Follows respiratory tree. Right and left pulmonary arteries are deoxygenated blood. Pulmonary capillaries surround alveoli. Right and left pulmonary veins are oxygenated blood.
Perfusion coupling, hypoxia (low O2) in lungs tissue causes vasoconstriction. drives blood to lung region with good oxygenation. opposite effect occurs in other body tissue.
Air flows from high pressure to low pressure. Air pressure is due to movement of air molecules. 760mmHg at sea level.
Air pressure varies inversely with volume. Increase volume = Air pressure decrease. Decrease volume = Air pressure increase. ventilation occurs due to changing size of thoracic cavity.
3 Regions of Pressure
Atmospheric pressure, alveolar pressure, and intrathoracic pressure.
Air pressure around body.
Air pressure inside lungs.
Air pressure in thoracic cavity. Slightly less than alveolar pressure (partial vacuum). Visceral pleura adheres to parietal pleura. Surface tension due to pleural fluid.
(inspiration) air flows into lungs. Occurs when alveolar pressure is less then atmospheric pressure. Size of thoracic cavity increases. Volume of thoracic cavity increases = intrathoracic pressure decreases. Lungs stretch and expand. Air flows into lungs until alveolar pressure = atmospheric pressure.
Flattens to increase length of cavity. (taller)
External Intercostal Muscle Contracts
Swivels ribs cranially increases diameter of cavity. (wider)
Others muscles of neck and shoulders help elevate ribs, making the thoracic cavity larger, and more air is inhaled.
(expiration) Air flows out of lungs, occurs when alveolar pressure is grater then atmospheric pressure. Size of thoracic cavity decreases. Thoracic cavity & lungs decrease in volume. Air flows out of lungs until alveolar pressure = atmospheric pressure
External Intercostal Muscle relax
ribs swivel caudally
Active, intercostal muscles pull ribs caudally. Abdominal muscles pull ribs caudally & compress abdominal cavity. Abdominal organs push diaphragm cranially.
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