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Tariffs and Acts
Terms in this set (139)
1649 Guaranteed freedom of religion to anyone in the colony of Maryland "professing to believe" in Jesus Christ. Purpose was to ensure toleration for Catholics in Maryland.
1650-1673 Series of acts to enforce mercantilist policy in the colonies. All trade was to be carried on English ships (or colonial ships with English crews). Imports to the colonies were required to go through English ports. Certain colonial goods were to be sold only to England (tobacco originally, expanded later).
1763 Made at the end of the French & Indian War. Prohibited the settlement of British settlers west of the Appalachian Mountains. Goal was to restrict settlement until peace negotiations with Indians could be completed. Colonists were upset because it restricted their freedom.
Sugar Act (Revenue Act)
1764 Purpose was to raise revenue. Duties were placed on sugar and molasses imported into the North American colonies from the West Indies.
1765 Required colonists to provide food and living quarters for British troops.
1765 Required all legal documents, licenses, commercial contracts, newspapers, pamphlets, and playing cards to carry a tax stamp. These items had long been taxed at higher rate in England. This was the first direct tax to be paid by buyers in the colonies.
1766 Passed at the same time the Stamp Act was repealed. Proclaimed that Parliament had a right to tax and make colonial laws "in all cases whatsoever."
1767 Called for the suspension of the New York Assembly for defiance of the Quartering Act. Placed import duties on tea, glass, and paper. Revenue raised was to be used to pay crown officials, who were independent of the colonial government.
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)
1774 Reaction to Boston Tea Party. Many laws passed at the same time. The port of Boston was closed. Reduced the power of Massachusetts legislature. Royal officials were to be tried in England. Expanded the Quartering Act. Led to the call for the First Continental Congress.
1774 Called a "good act in bad company." Organized Canadian lands received from France and allowed Canadians to continue their established traditions. Angered the colonists, who viewed the Quebec Act as favoritism.
Land Ordinance Act
1785 Provided for the surveying of western territories into six-square-mile townships before sale. Townships were to be subdivided into 36 sections of 640 acres each.
1787 Set the rules for achieving territorial status and then statehood. Outlawed slavery in the Old Northwest.
Hamilton's Financial Program
1790 Proposed the federal assumption of state debts and the establishment of a national bank. Included an extensive program for the federal stimulation of industrial development through subsidies and tax incentives. Funding came from an excise tax on whiskey and from tariffs on imports.
Alien & Sedition Acts
1798 The Alien Act raised new hurdles in the path of immigrants trying to obtain citizenship - to become a citizen one now had to live in the country for 14 years instead of 5. The Sedition Act broadened the powers of the Adams administration to muzzle newspaper critics.
Virginia & Kentucky Resolves
1798-1799 Madison and Jefferson came up with these resolves in response to Alien and Sedition Acts. They proposed that states be empowered to nullify federal laws. The resolves were only adopted in Kentucky and Virginia, and thus died.
1820 Henry Clay proposed that the Louisiana Purchase be divided at 36°30' - the north for non-slave states and the south for slave states. Meanwhile, Missouri would become a slave state and Maine a free state, thus balancing representation in the Senate.
Tariff of Abominations
Increased the import tariff to levels deemed intolerable by the South
which relied on foreign trade.
Tariff of 1832
1832 Lowered the tariff rates, but South Carolina protested because the reform was not extensive enough.
1833 Henry Clay's compromise tariff provided a gradual reduction of rates over time to 1816 levels and was accompanied by the Force Bill.
Compromise of 1850
1850 Compromise over admission of states from the Mexican Cession. California became a free state, the slave trade was abolished in Washington D.C., the Fugitive Slave Act was passed, and the territories of New Mexico and Utah were established on the basis of popular sovereignty, which would allow the people in the territory to decide if the territory should be slave or free.
1854 Turned lands west of Missouri and Iowa into the Kansas and Nebraska territories. The slavery issue in the new territories was to be decided by popular sovereignty. This overturned the Missouri Compromise.
1862 Declared that any head of a family who was a U.S. citizen could acquire 160 acres of land in new territories by paying a small registration fee and living on the land for 5 years.
Pacific Railway Act
1862 Authorized land subsidies and money subsidies for the construction of a transcontinental railroad.
Morill Land Grant Act
1862 Provided states 30,000 acres for each member of Congress. The land was to be used to support state mechanical and agricultural colleges.
1864 Said that a majority of those who had been alive to vote in 1860 would have to swear an "ironclad" oath that they were loyal to the federal government, and had never been disloyal. Lincoln vetoed the bill.
Timber & Stone Act
1878 Allowed any person to acquire forest at $2.50 an acre if the land was "unfit for cultivation."
Bland Allison Act
Authorized the Treasury Department to purchase $2 to $4 million worth of silver bullion per month to coin silver.
1883 Provided the President a way to determine the fitness of applicants for office by way of a competitive exam.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887, Provided for the creation of a commission to oversee rates on railways, end discriminatory practices, and require annual reports and financial statements.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
1890 Made to prevent corporations from engaging in monopolistic practices that were seen as "combination in restraint of trade." Used to shut down several businesses. Found unconstitutional in the case of E.C. Knight vs. United States.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1890 Silver interests passed legislation authorizing Congress to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver each month at market price and issue treasury notes redeemable in gold and silver. This act was repealed in 1893.
1890 This protective tariff promised by the Republicans in 1888 extended to industrial and agricultural goods. The act also included reciprocal trade provisions that allowed the President to retaliate against nations that discriminated against U.S. products and reward countries that opened their markets to American goods.
Treaty of Paris
1763 Ended French & Indian War. Ceded all French lands in North America to Britain. Britain was now in control of everything east of the Mississippi.
Treaty of Paris
1783 Ended the Revolutionary War in America. The United States was recognized as an independent nation. Territorial boundaries were set at the Great Lakes, the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida. Florida was given back to Spain.
1794 A negotiated treaty with the British that attempted to settle conflict at sea and curtail English involvement in Indian attacks. Britain agreed to evacuate posts on the U.S. western frontier, but nothing firm was determined about British seizures of U.S. merchant ships. An unpopular treaty.
1795 The Spanish opened the Mississippi River to American traffic, including the right of deposit at the port city of New Orleans. Florida's northern boundary at 31° was established.
Washington's Farewell Address
1796 Washington warned the new nation to avoid "inveterate antipathies" and "passionate attachments" to any foreign nation. Said that permanent alliances should be avoided, although temporary alliances were OK. Warned against the use of political parties.
1803 The Louisiana Territory was purchased from France for $15,000,000. The original goal was just to secure the port of New Orleans. Jefferson viewed the purchase as unconstitutional, but did it anyway.
1800 Jefferson forbade any American ship to leave port for any foreign nation. Hoped that British trade would be hurt so they would stop violating the neutral rights of the U.S. The act backfired and resulted in a brief economic depression.
1808 Modified the Embargo Act. Forbid trade only with Britain and France.
1810 Opened trade with all nations once again. Provided that if either Britain or France would formally agree to respect the neutral rights of the U.S., the U.S. would embargo trade with that nation's foe. Napoleon accepted this offer, but never upheld his end of the agreement.
Treaty of Ghent
1814 Ended the War of 1812. Signed before the Battle of New Orleans. Territories were restored to their pre-war boundaries.
1817 First "disarmament" agreement. The United States and Britain agreed not to maintain an armed fleet in the Great Lakes.
Treaty of 1818
1818 British-U.S. border fixed along 49° from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. Oregon would be held jointly by the two nations for 10 years.
1819 Spain ceded Florida and gave up all claims to Oregon. In return, the
U.S. gave up claims to Texas and assumed $5
000,000 worth of civilian claims against Spain. The western boundary of the Louisiana Purchase was formalized.
1823 Proclaimed the United States' opinion that European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located in the Americas. In return, the United States planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers.
1842 Conflicting claims over the Canada-Maine boundary were resolved.
1846 Boundary with Canada extended from Rockies to the Pacific along 49° (extending the line established by the Treaty of 1818). The cry for "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight" was abandoned.
1846 A bill was passed that provided $2 million for President Polk to settle boundary disputes with Mexico. Wilmot added an amendment to the bill stating that any land acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War should be free of slavery.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
1848 Ended Mexican War. Mexican Cession included California, New Mexico, and Utah Territories. U.S. paid Mexico $15 million for the land and assumed Mexican debts owed to U.S. citizens to the tune of $3.25 million. The Rio Grande was recognized as southern border of Texas.
1850 U.S. and Britain agreed that neither would attempt to take exclusive control of any future canal route in Central America. Voided in 1901.
1853 Purchased sections of present-day new Mexico and Arizona from Mexico for $10 million. The goal was to establish a cheaper route for a transcontinental railroad. This completed acquisitions on the U.S. mainland.
1854 Pierce sought to buy Cuba from Spain. A secret document revealed plans to take Cuba from Spain if Spain refused to sell. It caused so much public embarrassment that the issue was dropped.
Emperor Maximilian Incident
1867 French troops established Maximilian as a puppet Mexican Emperor. In response to U.S. protests over this violation of the Monroe Doctrine, the French withdrew support and Maximilian was executed.
1867 Russia was paid $7.2 million for "Seward's Folly."
New Manifest Destiny
Late 1800s America was overcome with the idea of imperialism, in which it was seen as America's duty to rule the hemisphere. Hawaii and the Philippines were the first victims.
1889 Established an International Bureau, later called the Pan-American Union, to promote cultural and commercial exchange between nations in Western Hemisphere.
1898 Sponsored by Republican senator Henry M. Teller of Colorado, this statement denied any intention to exercise control over Cuba and pledged that the government of the island would be left to its inhabitants as soon as peace had been restored there.
Treaty of Paris
1899 Secured independence for Cuba from Spain and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the U.S. Ended the Spanish-American War.
Open Door Policy
1899 Guaranteed equal opportunity of trade and the sovereignty of the Chinese government.
1901 The U.S. and Britain voided the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. The U.S. was free to construct, maintain, an fortify a canal across the isthmus of Central America as long as it was open to all ships.
1901 The U.S. made Cuba a protectorate. Cuba could not make a treaty with a foreign nation. Cuba was to allow the United States to issue orders and lease a base at Guantanamo Bay for 99 years.
1903 Phillipe Bunau-Varilla, a former engineer with the French Panama Canal Company and Panamanian minister to the United States, negotiated a treaty in which the U.S. paid Panama $10 million up front and an annual fee of $250,000 in exchange for rights to a zone five miles wide on either side of the Panama Canal route.
1904 The U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Latin America affairs, presumably to keep European powers from collecting debts by force.
1905 Japan promised that it had no interest in the Philippines, and the United States agreed to approve of Japanese domination of Korea.
Big Stick Diplomacy
1905 America became involved in the affairs of Venezuela, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Cuba. The U.S. brandished a "big stick" like a policeman to beat Europeans out of Latin America.
1914 The concept that economic penetration would bring stability to other nations, as well as profit and power to the United States, without having to use troops or special funds.
Treaty of Versailles
1919 President Woodrow Wilson introduced his "Fourteen Points" for world security, but only one, the League of Nations, was approved. Failed to pass the U.S. Senate.
1922 This naval limitation treaty, signed by the U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy, set a ship ratio for the countries involved and called for the scrapping of 1,900,000 tons of warships.
1924 Agreement made regarding German WWI reparations payments. Involved extensive loans to Germany. It softened the burden of reparations and stabilized German currency, but made the German economy dependant on foreign markets.
1928 Stated that America would not intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. A repudiation of the Roosevelt Corollary.
1928 First proposed as a treaty between France and United States. Invited all nations to renounce war as an instrument of national policy. Outlawed aggression, not self-defense. Few signed the agreement.
1929 Scaled down the German reparations bill when it became clear that the Dawes Plan was not sustainable.
London Naval Conference
1930 The U.S., Great Britain, and Japan agreed on a fixed number of cruisers, destroyers, and submarines.
1931Said that America would not recognize any agreement that hurt the integrity of China and the Open Door Policy
Good Neighbor Policy
1930s Policy to avoid foreign entanglements while still advancing American economic interests. Essentially, America would play the good neighbor by heeding the complaints of Latin American nations.
1935-1937 1935: In the outbreak of war, all exports of American arms and munitions would be restricted for six months. 1936: Gave the President the authority to determine when a state of war existed, and prohibited any loans or credits to belligerents. 1937: Prohibited all arms sales to belligerents and established cash-and-carry rules for non-military goods.
1937 Japanese planes bombed the American gunboat Panay. The matter was resolved after a formal apology was issued by the Japanese.
Cash and Carry
1939 Revised the Neutrality Acts so that a belligerent could buy U.S. arms under cash-and-carry terms. Technically neutral, but favored Britain.
Destroyers for Bases
1940 Gave Britain 50 destroyers in return for a 99-year lease on air and naval bases in British Territories.
1941 Authorized the President to sell, lend, lease, transfer, or exchange arms and supplies to any nation needing American help to defend itself.
1941 Described a postwar world based on self-determination for all nations.
1943 FDR and Winston Churchill agreed that WWII would continue until the "unconditional" surrender of the Axis nations was obtained.
Dunbarton Oaks Conference
1944 The U.S., Britain, the Soviet Union, and China met to discuss an international association (United Nations) after World War II.
1945 The U.S., Britain, the Soviet Union, France, and China would be permanent members of the future United Nations Security Council. Germany was divided into occupational zones and a coalition government was agreed upon for Poland.
1945 Truman ordered the dropping of the atomic bomb on Japan. Established a Council of Foreign Ministers to draft peace treaties for the Balkans.
1945 Created a General Assembly composed of all member nations which would act as the ultimate worldwide policy-making body. A Security Council of 11 members was created. Permanent members given veto powers.
1950-1990 The name given to heated relations between the United States and the Soviet Union after WWII. Several confrontations occurred, including the blockade of Berlin, Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis, and Vietnam War.
1946-1947 Soviet expert George F. Kennan wrote an article in which he called for counter-measures to "contain" the spread of Communism.
1947 Said that it is the responsibility of the United States to support free peoples resisting Communist domination.
1947 An recovery program designed to rebuild Europe's economy after World War II. It was also called the European Recovery Program.
1949 Short for North Atlantic Treaty Organization. All signatories pledged that an attack against one would be against all of them. The Warsaw Pact was formed by the Soviets to oppose NATO.
1948 Short for Organization of American States. Created following a mutual defense pact with Latin America. Decisions were reached by a 2/3 vote with no special weight given to the United States.
1954 An attempt by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles to organize a group of Southeast Asian countries to parallel NATO. It failed due to lack of interest.
1955 France, Britain, the Soviet Union, and China signed this agreement dividing Vietnam along the 17th parallel.
1955 Khrushchev's response to the Eisenhower-Dulles policy of massive retaliation.
1957 Announced that the U.S. was prepared to use force in the Middle East to preserve democracy. U.S. Marines entered Lebanon to ease the change in governments.
Alliance for Progress
1961 Kennedy provided $20 million of aid to Latin America.
1964 Said that if one country falls to Communism then other countries will fall and Communism will rule the world. Vietnam was the first domino.
Gulf Of Tonkin Resolution
1964 An alleged attack on an American boat in the Gulf of Tonkin caused President Johnson to ask for authorization to "repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression."
1972 Defined as a relaxation in the tensions between two governments. This policy sought to establish set rules to govern the rivalry between the United States, China, and the Soviet Union.
1972-1979 SALT I signatories agreed to stop making nuclear ballistic missiles. SALT II set a ceiling of 2,250 bombers and missiles for Americans and Soviets, placed limits on warheads, and established new weapons systems.
1990 In the Persian Gulf War, America launched Operation Desert Storm to stop Saddam Hussein and Iraq from monopolizing the world's oil industry by annexing Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
Tariff of 1789
Mainly for revenue; some protection for "infant industries" (Washington).
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff; Clay and Calhoun supported it as part of the American System; Southern cotton growers opposed it (Madison).
Tariff of 1824
Raised tariff rates; opposition from South grew (Monroe).
Tariff of Abominations
Protective measures for New England mills; Southerners outraged (Adams)
Tariff of 1832
Moderate reform returned rates to 1824 levels; South Carolina was unmoved and started Nullification Crisis (Jackson).
Tariff of 1833
Clay compromise; gradual reduction of rates over time to 1816 levels; New England states opposed it (Jackson).
Tariff of 1842
Tariffs raised following the Panic of 1837 (Tyler).
West supported tariff reduction in hope of selling grain abroad (Polk).
Tariff of 1857
Tariff lowered to almost free-trade status; North opposed it (Buchanan).
Wartime Tariff Acts
Increased protectionism to fund Union war costs (Buchanan/Lincoln).
Tariff of 1872
Reduced rates on some manufactured goods (Grant).
Tariff of 1875
average rates reduced by 10 percent (Grant).
Republicans abandoned reform; compromise satisfied no one (Arthur).
Highest protective tariff to date; averaged 48 percent (Harrison).
Reform measure crippled by Senate amendments (Cleveland).
Blatantly protective measure; some rates set at 57 percent (McKinley).
Attempted to lower duties; little effect; Progressives angered (Taft).
Underwood- Simmons Tariff
General duty reduction was soon negated by outbreak of WWI; federal income tax provision made (Wilson).
Republican response to mini-depression; raised agricultural rates to protect farmers; only a stopgap measure (Harding).
Increased rates sharply; President empowered to adjust rates; Tariff Commission created to advise the President (Harding).
Raised U.S. duties to an all-time high; foreign retaliation (Hoover).
Hull Trade Pacts
Reciprocal treaties to reduce tariffs and stimulate trade (FDR).
United Nations organization created to seek tariff reductions (Truman).
Trade Expansion Act
President received authority to negotiate tariff reductions up to 50%; aimed primarily at EEC (Kennedy).
GATT talks for a 33% tariff reduction with Western Europe (Johnson)
GATT talks regarding non-tariff trade barriers; included non-GATT members (Nixon).
Trade Act of 1974
President allowed to end tariffs aimed at developing nations (Ford).
U.S., Canada, and Mexico removed most trade barriers (Clinton).
New GATT agreement; World Trade Organization formed (Clinton).
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