Clinical Social Work Exam

Terms in this set (107)

extends general systems theory beyond the nuclear family. The dominant founder of this school is Murray Bowen. He believes that the extended family is a key element in the development and treatment of family dysfunction. The goal of this type of therapy is to increase the level of self-differentiation in all family members. In other words, family therapy seeks to increase the ratio of solid self (which is consistent and non-negotiable) to psuedoself (which varies as pressure varies in the relationship). There are eight interlocking concepts in Bowen's theory:
1) Differentiation of self refers to a individual's ability to separate intellectual and
emotional functioning. Low levels of differentiation, the higher the possibility that
the individual will become "fused" to family members emotionally.
2) Emotional triangles occur when a two-person system experiences instability. A
third person, usually a family member who has a low level of differentiation, is
recruited into the system to reduce anxiety.
3) Family projective process is the transmission of parental conflicts and
emotional immaturity onto the children.
4) Emotional cutoff is a false sense of differentiation, achieved by avoiding content
with one's family of origin.
5) Multigenerational transmission process is the notion that dysfunction is a result of
lack of differentiation through several generations.
6) Sibling position is the notion that a child's function in the family is related to birth
order and that position affect future relationships.
7) Societal regression refers to the idea that emotional factors in society affect the
emotional functioning of families.
• Groups can be heterogeneous (different in their area of disturbance, age, etc.) or homogeneous (similar in terms of important characteristics)
• Most experts agree that groups should consist of members who share the same level of intelligence.
• Many experts believe that group members should be similar in terms of their developmental level.
• Dreikurs believes that group members (especially children) should be matched for age.
• With young children, sexually homogeneous members are preferred.
• With adolescents, the focus of the group determines the preference for sexual homogeneity of members.
• With adults, lasting change is more likely if the members of the group are sexually heterogeneous.
• Different researchers recommend either heterogeneity or homogeneity of problem:
Whitaker and Leiberman (1964) want maximum heterogeneity in the members areas of conflict and homogeneity in the members vulenerability.
Yalom wants heterogeneity for conflict areas and homogeneity for ego strength.
Glaver and Gavin believe that heterogeneity is important lest a "too homogeneous" current form to reinforce negative characteristics.
Garvin, Reid, and Epstein believe that similarities (homogeneity) among task-group members make members more effective.
• Homogeneous groups tend to gel faster, become more cohesive, offer immediate support to members, have less conflict, have better attendance, and quickly provide symptomatic relief.
• Homogeneous groups also tend to remain at superficial levels, and are inefficient for altering character structure.
• Heterogeneous groups offer more potential for deep, lasting change.
• Groups can be open (allowing members to join and terminate at different times) or closed (all members begin and end at same time)
• Therapy groups are most effective when they consist of between seven and ten members.
• Group cohesion is maximized when members participate in defining the group's goals and norms, and perceive the group to be valuable for achieving the desired ends.
Ecology is the study of the relationship between an organism and its environment. The ecological perspective is based on a transactional view of this relationship. Transactions between a person's coping patterns and the qualities of his/her environment constitute a person-situation duality. The premise underlying the ecological approach is that people's needs and predicaments result from
Organism:Environment exchanges, not from personality or environment alone.



The concepts of this approach are:
• Adaptedness = goodness of fit with the environment. This refers to an adaptive balance of an individual's rights, needs, capacities, and goals with his physical and social environment.
• Stress = Can either be a positive or a negative person:environment relationship. It encompasses the environmental demand and the accompanying subjective experience of physiological and psychological stress.
• Coping = The psychological, physiological, and behaviorla response that is set in motion as a result of stress. The major functions of coping are problem-solving, managing negative feelings, and maintaining self-esteem.
• Niche and Habitat = Niche refers to the status occupied by an individual or group within a given social structure and is related to issues of power and oppression. Habitats are places where organisms are found. A habitat must support life.
• Relatedness, Competence, Self-direction, and Self-esteem/Identity = These concepts help the practitioner focus on the transactional nature of the person;environment relationship.
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