Why did the "XYY" chromosome theory fall out of favor as an explanation for criminal behavior?
Research did not support the theory.
Based on differential association theory, what is the MOST likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?
They are from families that have a history of being involved in crime.
According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?
When we fear punishment from authorities such as parents or the court system.
Cloward and Ohlin addressed the street hustler as a role model for youth and the methods used to earn easy money through a life of crime. What did they call this career path of delinquency?
illegitimate opportunity structure
The sociologist responsible for developing one of the first control theories that addressed the inner controls of the individual and outer controls of society was ________.
The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?
According to Cloward and Ohlin, what is the underlying cause of deviance and delinquency in unstable slums of a city?
Illigitimate opportunity structures
How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the workforce who are subject to layoffs?
Based on the 2011 edition of the Statistical Abstract in the United States, the state with the lowest rate of violent crime in America is ________, while the state with the highest rate of violent crime is ________.
The term white-collar crime was coined by sociologist ________ to refer to crimes that people of respectable social status commit in the course of their occupation.
According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.
Because of ________, deviance is often seen as mental sickness rather than problematic behavior.
Medicalization of deviance
At the steel plant, all minorities hired are assigned to work the battery pits, one of the dirtiest jobs in the mill. Even so, the battery pit workers wear this assignment as a badge of honor and have developed a close social bond that transcends the time they spend at the mill. How would Karl Marx describe their solidarity?
The workers share class consciousness
The spread of an economic system based on investing to make profits, which is becoming the world's dominant economic system, is referred to as ________.
Globalization of Capitalism
Raul is a member of the Kshatriya who recently engaged in an intimate act with a member of the Dalit. Raul has seen the error of his ways, however, and wants to make amends for his indiscretions. Which statement BEST explains Raul's next course of action?
Raul will undergo ablution.
In contrast to most other stratification systems, Karl Marx's system had only two classes, each depending on the individual's relationship to the means of production.
Which of the following characteristics is MOST associated with the class system?
movement up and down the class ladder
A system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.
The growing interconnections between the world's wealthiest people have produced a global superclass.
The key to effectively maintaining social stratification involves the privileged class controlling ideas and information rather than depending on the use of force.
Howard S. Becker
On deviance: "It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant.
Symbolic Interactionists & Deviance
Relativity of deviance; what is deviant to some is not deviant to others
Used the term stigma to refer to characteristics that discredit people. These include violations of norms of appearance (facial birthmark, huge nose), norms of ability (blindness, deafness, mental handicaps), AIDS victims, brother of a rapist. The stigma can become a person's master status, defining him as deviant.
Formal & informal means of enforcing norms. At the center of social control are sanctions.
Expressions of disapproval for deviance; frowns and gossip for breaking folkways to imprisonment & death for breaking mores
Sociobiologists & Deviance
Explain deviance by looking for answers within the individual. The assume genetic predispositions lead people to crime.
Psychologists & Deviance
Focus on abnormalities within the individual; instead of genes, they examine personality disorders. Their supposition is that deviating individuals have deviating personalities & that subconcious motives drive people to deviance.
Sociologists & Deviance
Search for factors outside individual (social influences that "recruit" people to break norms)
Believe we are thinking beings who act according to how we interpret situations; however, stress that we are not mere pawns in the hands of others, we are not destined to think & act as our groups dictate (we help to produce our own orientations to life). Examine how people's definition of the situation underlie their deviating from or conforming to social norms. Focus on group membership (differential association), how people balance pressures to conform and to deviate (control theory), and the significance of reputations (labeling theory).
Differential Association Theory
From the different groups we associate w/, we learn to deviate from or conform to society's norms; coined by Edwin Sutherland
Tries to answer, "With the desire to deviate so common, why don't we all just bust loose?"
Developed by Walter Reckless. Stressed that 2 control systems work against our motivations to deviate.
Inner controls include our internalized morality - conscience, religious principles, ideas of right & wrong.
Outer controls consist of people (family, friends, police) who influence us not to deviate.
Focuses on the significance of reputations, how they help us on paths that propel us into deviance or divert us away from it.
Techniques of Neutralization
Gresham Sykes & David Matza studied thugs & found they used 5 ways to deflect society's norms.
1. Denial of Responsibility (it was an accident)
2. Denial of Injury (no one got hurt, so it wasn't wrong)
3. Denial of a Victim (he deserved it)
4. Condemnation of the Condemners (you can't judge me)
5. Appeal to Higher Loyalties (I had to help my friends)
Robert Merton; frustrations people feel to reach goals. If mainstream rules seem illegitimate, you experience a gap that Merton called anomie, a sense of normlessness.
Four Deviant Paths
Reactions to the gap people find between the goals they want and their access to institutionalized means to reach them.
1. Innovation - use bad ways to reach goals (crack dealer, embezzler, robber, con artist)
2. Ritualism - cling to a job without enthusiasm (burnout)
3. Retreatism - stop pursuing success & retreat into drugs/alcohol
4. Rebellion - seek to give society new goals (revolutionaries)
Illegitimate Opportunity Structure
Cloward & Ohlin; alternative door to success - hustles such as robbery, burglary, drug dealing, prostitution, pimping, gambling
Pimps & drug dealers present an image of a glamorous life - people who are in control & have plenty of easy money. For many of the poor, the hustler becomes a role model.
White Collar Crime
Coined by Edwin Sutherland; refers to crimes that people of respectable & high social status commit in the course of their occupations. A form of white collar crime is corporate crime - executives violating the law in order to benefit the company
Regard power & social inequality as the main characteristics of society. Stress the criminal justice system is a tool designed by the powerful to maintain their power & prestige.
Medicalization of Deviance
Deviance & crime are signs of mental sickness. Rape, murder, stealing, cheating are external symptoms of internal disorders, consequences of a confused or tortured mind that should be treated by health experts.
Disagress w/ medicalization of deviance; "Mental illnesses are neither mental nor illness. They are simply problem behaviors." Breaks it down into physical illness & learned deviance. Some sociologists find this refreshing because it indicates that social experiences, not some illness of the mind, underlie bizarre behavior.
System in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative property, power, and perstige. Social stratificaition does not refer to individuals. It is a way of ranking large numbers of people into a hierarchy according to their relative privileges. In every society, gender is a basis for stratifying people.
Much more open because it is based primarily on money & material possessions, which can be acquired. Individuals can change their social class by what they do or don't achieve.
Social class depends on a single factor: people's relationship to the means of production - tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth.
Bourgeoisie (capitalists) - those who own means of production
Proletariat - workers
False Class Consciousness
Workers mistakenly thinking of themselves as capitalists (workers w/ a little money thinking they are about to launch a successful business). Holds back the workers' unity & revolution.
Critic of Marx; argued that property is only part of the picture. Social class, he said, has 3 components: property, power, and prestige.
Believe patterns of behavior that characterize a society exist because they are functional for that society.
Davis & Moore
Argued that to attract the most capable people to fill its important positions, society must offer greater rewards. Concluded that people stuck w/ stressful jobs because they offer greater rewards - more prestige, pay, benefits. Critiqued by Tumin, who said if stratification worked the way Davis & Moore described it, society would be a meritocracy (positions would be awarded on the basis of merit), which isn't right considering rich kids get into college more than smart ones.
Argued that every society will be stratified by power.
1. No society can is existence unless it is organized (requires leadership).
2. Leadership requires inequalities of power (some become leaders and others follow).
3. Because human nature is self-centered, people in power will use their positions to seize greater rewards for themselves.
Karl Marx (Conflict theorist)
What is human history except the chronicle of class struggle?All of human hisstory is an account of small groups of people in power using society's resources to benefit themselves & to oppress those beneath them - and of oppressed groups trying to overcome the oppression.
Predicted the workers will revolt. One day class consciousness will will expose the truth, and they will rebel.
Combined functionalist & conflict theories; suggest that surplus is key. Groups fight over the surplus, and the group that wins becomes an elite.
Divine Right of Kings
King's authority comes straight from God (example of how elite control society by controlling ideas)
Vladimir Lenin & Leon Trotsky
Led a revolution in Russia in 1917, heeding Karl Marx's call for a classless society. Never claimed to have achieved the ideal of communism, in which all contribute their labor to the common good & receive according to their needs. Instead, the used the term socialism to describe the intermediate step between capitalism & communism, in which social classes are abolished but some inequality remains.
Most Industrialized Nations
US, Canada, Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, Australia, New Zealand
Countries that industrialized first got the jump on the rest of the world; stronger countries invaded weaker ones, making colonies out of them. Purpose was to establish economic colonies - to exploit the nation's people & resources for the benefit of the "mother" country.
World System Thoery
Industrialization led to 4 groups of nations.
First group - core nations (countries that industrialized first - Britain, France, Holland, Germany)
Second - Semiperiphery (economies stagnated because they grew dependent on trade w/ core nations)
Third - Periphery (sold cash crops to core nations)
Fourth - External Area (left out of development of capitalism altogether)
Globalization of Capitalism
Adoption of capitalism around the world; has created ties among the world's nations. Production/trade are now so interconnected that events around the globe affect us all.
John Kenneth Galbraith
Claimed that cultures of Least Industrialized Nations hold them back; some nations are crippled by a culture of poverty, a way of life that perpetuates poverty from one generation to the next. (Farmers won't take risks because if they fail, they will starve.)
Argued that when colonialism fell out of style it was replaced by neocolonialism. Stronger nations keep weaker nations in debt as a way to force them to submit to trading terms dictated by the neocolonialists.
Companies that operate across many national boundaries; help to maintain the global dominance of Most Industrialized Nations
Buildings, land, animals, machinery, cars, stocks, bonds, businesses, furniture, jewelry, bank accounts. When you add up the value of someone's property and subtract the person's debts, you have their wealth (net worth).
C. Wright Mills
Insisted that power (ability to get your way despite resistance) was concentrated in the hands of a few. Coined the term power elite to refer to those who make the big decisions in the US.
Analyzed how people try to maximize their status (position in a social group). Individuals who rank high in one dimension of social class, but low in others want people to judge them based on their highest status. Others, however, are also trying to maximize their own positions, so they may respond according to these people's lowest rankings.
Status Inconsistency & Health
Men who are status inconsistent are twice as likely to have heart attacks
Suggests that some people are members of more than one class at a time. They occupy contradictory class locations (person's position in the class structure can generate contradictory interests). Eg, mechanic turned business owner can want to give his workers higher pay, but is also interested in making profits.
Modified Marx's model. Identifies 4 classes
Capitalists - business owners w/ many workers
Petty Bourgeoisie - small business owners
Managers - sell their own labor but also exercise authority over other employees
Workers - sell their labor
Joseph Kahl & Dennis Gilbert
Developed six-tier model to portray class structure of US and other capitalist countries based on Weber:
Capitalist, upper middle, lower middle, working, working poor, underclass
When grown children end up on a different rung of the social class ladder from the one occupied by parents (daugher that bought Nissan dealership her mom sold cars at)
Changes in society that allow large numbers of people to move up or down class ladder (how changes in society make opportunies plentifiul or scarce)
Large numbers of people move up or down the social ladder, but on balance, the proportions of the social class remain about the same
Elizabeth Higginbothm & Lynn Weber
Found the recurring theme of parents encouraging girls to postpone marriage & get an education in order to achieve upward mobility
Feminization of Poverty
Association of poverty w/ women; high rates of divorce & births to single mothers, mother-headed families have become more common
Culture of Poverty
Assumption that values & behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other Americans, and these factors are responsible for their continued long-term poverty
Why are People Poor?
Features of Society - deny people access to education; racial, age, gender discrimination, changes in job market
Characteristics of Individual - dropping out of school, bearing children in teen years
Poverty Triggers - people can live on the edge of poverty, but an unexpected event can push them over (pregnancy, loss of job, divorce, accident, illness)
Social analysts believe the characteristics of individuals cause poverty; sociologists stress the structural features of society.