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SOC 3970 Final Exam Review

Terms in this set (60)

1. drug treatment: nearly 40% of people who want drug/alcohol treatment can't get it due to no health coverage/inability to afford it, long waiting lists, lack of programs that meet particular needs, geographical variations in availability of treatment centers/services; racial, ethnic, and class disparities in access; some are only able to access drug treatment as a result of an arrest or criminal conviction; funding for criminal drug law enforcement is much greater than funding for treatment programs; it's more cost effective than punishment/incarceration

2. overdose prevention measures: accidental drug overdose rates have increased (now a leading cause of accident-related death); most of these deaths are preventable through overdose prevention policies (however, if people are using drugs/alcohol illegally, they often fear arrest if they call 911); Good Samaritan 911 laws exempt people from arrest and prosecution for minor drug and alcohol violations if they witness overdose and call 911; Naloxone Access laws provide an inexpensive generic drug that works to reverse an opioid overdose by restoring breath to unconscious overdose victims

3. supervised injection facilities (aka safe injection sites): legally sanctioned facilities where people can inject their own illicit drugs under medical supervision; designed to reduce the health and societal problems (public use of drugs, improper disposal of needles, transmission of blood-borne diseases) associated with injection drug use; provide sterile injection equipment, info about reducing the harms of drugs, health care, treatment referrals, and access to medical staff; some offer counseling, hygienic amenities, and other services including onsite detox, rehab

4. needle exchange programs: increases sterile syringe access to reduce syringe sharing among injection drug users and decrease rates of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis transmission; have also been shown to increase the safe disposal of used syringes (protects police officers and public from accidental exposure); can also connect drug addicts with referrals to drug treatment, detoxification, social services, and primary health care

5. drug replacement and maintenance therapy: provide individuals addicted to drugs legal access to drugs that would otherwise be obtained through illegal means; a lot of evidence that therapies like methadone maintenance are effective treatments for opioid dependence; methadone is the most widely-used maintenance treatment (most tightly restricted drug in the US because general docs can't prescribe)
enslavement model: argues that unintentional/unplanned narcotic addiction causes a life that revolves around engaging in money-making crimes; if not for the addiction, the person would be law-abiding; it is the drug addiction that causes criminal behavior; the drug addiction "enslaves" them to a life of crime to support their habit; (how to break the drug-crime connection: if addicting drugs were dispensed (legally and cheaply) in clinics, the link between drug addiction and a life of crime would be severed; drug treatment)

predisposition model: argues that the kinds of people who are likely to engage in compulsive drug-taking behavior are also the kinds of people who are likely to engage in criminal behavior; drugs and crime are two sides of the same behavioral syndrome; criminals are deviant, antisocial people who have a predisposition for crime AND drug use

intensification model: argues that drug addiction accelerates but does not generate money-making criminal behavior; the predisposition to engage in both compulsive drug use and criminal behavior explains part but not all of the connection between the two; neither the enslavement nor the predisposition model is completely faithful to the facts; (ex: juvenile crime usually comes before (more than half) drug use/addiction (contrary to enslavement model; supportive of predisposition)); (ex: when addicts abstain from drug use, their crime rates drop dramatically (supportive of enslavement model; contrary to predisposition)); in sum, there is some evidence for both enslavement and predisposition models; drug use and addiction intensifies and
perpetuates criminal behavior/criminal careers (drug use "drives" crime); best explanation is intensification model because it combines two models that by themselves do not fully explain the connection.
cocaine: violence tends to be gender related; as men's cocaine abuse increases, their likelihood of being the perpetrator of violence increases; as women's cocaine abuse increases, her likelihood of being the victim of crime increases; men using small amounts-violence entailed robberies, non drug related disputes, and drug related disputes (most violence entailed robberies only for large amounts); for women the violent victimization they experienced were mostly in domestic disputes; the violence engaged in/experienced is linked to the person's "mode of living" in a "subculture of violence" where cocaine use is more common (but not a cause of violence)

heroin: prior to the 1970's, most researchers thought of the heroin addict as basically peaceful; beginning in the early 1970's, a new view of heroin addicts emerged: their tendency to commit violence was significantly greater than that of the ordinary criminal or property offender; the 1970's marked a "new breed" of heroin addicts; younger users who took many drugs in addition to heroin; users who were more likely to confront their victims in robberies rather than relying on stealth; researchers realized that buying and selling of heroin took place in a climate of fear, suspicion, mistrust, and paranoia; the pharmacological model sometimes overlooks the role of withdrawal in driving violence potential (irritability, discomfort, strong cravings lead to greater chance of violence); robbery (itself a violent crime and can lead to others like assault/murder) is a way addicts get drugs

alcohol: many people drink and most don't engage in violent behavior but drinkers have higher rates of violence when compared to non-drinkers and drinkers are more likely to be violently victimized compared to non-drinkers; alcohol is related to violence but not necessarily a cause of violence; average of 50-60% of perpetrators of criminal homicide were under the influence of alcohol at the time of crime; also gender specific alcohol was present in 62% male assailant to male victim homicide, 53% male to female homicide, and 27% female assailant;
(2 specific alcohol relationships related to violence)