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Root hairs are important to a plant because they ____.

increase the surface area for absorption

Which of the following is correctly matched with its tissue system?

cortex ... ground tissue system

How do cells in a meristem differ from cells in other types of plant tissue?

they continue to divide

The primary growth of a plant adds ____ and secondary growth adds ____.

height .... Girth

Other than the transport of materials, what is another function that vascular tissue performs in a leaf?

the tissue functions as a skeleton that reinforces the shape of the leaf.

Cell division in the vascular cambium adds to the girth of a tree by adding new ___ to the layer's interior and ____ to the layer's exterior.

xylem ... phloem

Cellular differentiation is responsible for ____.

one daughter cell becoming a sieve tube whereas the other becomes a companion cell

At which level in the hierarchy of plant structure is the polarity of a plant determined?


Cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in plants depends primarily on ____.

regulation of gene expression

Plants must always compromise between ____ and _____.

maximizing photosynthesis .... Minimizing water loss

Mycorrhizae are ___.

mutualistic associations between plant roots and fungi

The proton pump ____.

uses the energy stored in ATP to produce a hydrogen ion gradient across membranes

A plant cell placed in a solution with a lower (more negative) water potential will ___.

lose water and plasmolyze

Which of the following is a correct statement about a difference between xylem and phloem transport?

xylem sap moves up; phloem sap moves up or down

A student is performing a chemical analysis of xylem sap. This student should not expect to find much ____.


Which one of the following refers to the loss of water through the stomata in a plant's leaves?


The solute most abundant in phloem sap is ____.


In addition to transporting sugar, the phloem also ____.

all of the above (transmits electrical signals; transports viral RNA throughout the plant; transports plant RNA throughout the plant; transports proteins throughout the plant)

Topsoil ____.

is a mixture of rock fragments, living organisms, and humus

Humus consists of ____.

decomposing organic material

A major long-term problem resulting from excessive irrigation is the ____.

accumulation of salts in the soil

Mineral nutrients ____.

contribute little to a plant's overall mass

For an element to be considered a macronutrient____.

it must be required in relatively large amounts

Which of the following is a symptom of magnesium deficiency in plants?


Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil ____.

convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia

The relationship between legumes and Rhizobium is ____.


Mutualistic associations between roots and soil fungi are called ____.


The sundew plant has to digest insects because ____.

it obtains nitrogen from their bodies that it cannot get from the soil

Meiosis will produce microspores in the ____.


Which association below is correct?

dioecious ... separate female and male parts

In angiosperms, each pollen grain produces two sperm. What do these sperm do?

one fertilizes an egg, and the other combines with two polar nuclei, which develop into stored food cells (endosperm)

The germination of seeds ____.

depends on imbibition

Which of the following is an example of sexual reproduction?

fusion of sperm and egg nuclei in an ovule

Which of the following is an advantage of asexual reproduction in plants?

enhanced survival of genetically favorable offspring

Self-incompatibility _____.

helps maintain genetic variability in a population

Which of the following is one possible advantage of biofuels vs. Oil?

the CO2 produced by biofuels will be absorbed by the crops used to produce them, creating a carbon-neutral cycle

Plant hormones act by directly affecting the activities of ____.

signal transduction pathways

Which of the following seedlings will probably bend toward light?

one whose tip is separated from its base by a gelatin block

Which of these plant hormones is not typically considered a growth-promoting substance?

abscisic acid

The Pr form of the phytochrome pigment has maximum absorption in the ___ part of the spectrum.


A biological cycle with a period of about 24 hours is called ___.

circadian rhythm

Most plants flower when ____.

the nights are the right length

The molecule most involved in the flowering process is ____.

FT protein

Thigmotropism is a movement in response to ____.


Which of the following is a response in plants to a water deficit?

reduction in the rate of transpiration

Strains of pathogens that mildly harm, but do not kill, the host plant are termed ____.


Which of the following is a difference between plants and fungi?

fungi are heterotrophic, and plants are autotrophic

Fungi obtain nutrients through _____.


The body of most fungi consists of threadlike ____, which form a network called a ___.

hyphae .... Mycelium

The diploid phase of the life cycle is shortest in which of the following?


What sexual processes in fungi generate genetic variation?

karyogamy and meiosis

An important example of interaction between fungi and certain other organisms is mycorrhizae, in which the fungal partners _____.

help plants take up nutrients and water

Almost all of the members of this phylum form arbuscular mycorrhizae in a mutualistic partnership with plants.


Fungi of the phylum ascomycota are recognized on the basis of their production of ____ during sexual reproduction.

saclike structures

Fungi form mutualistic relationships with plants and animals. Which of the following is an example of such a relationship?

all the above (fungi help break down plant material in the guts of grazing animals; fungi can help increase drought tolerance in plants; fungi help break down wood in the guts of termites)

From the human perspective, which of the following kinds of fungi would be considered the least useful or beneficial?


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