Exercise Physiology Final
Terms in this set (198)
Pulmonary ventilation is
the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute
The internal intercostals are engaged during
If you sit and breathe quietly into a spirometer, which lung volume is being recorded?
The volume of air that remains in the lungs after expiration and cannot be exhaled is the
If you breathe in as deeply as you can and then forcefully exhale as much as possible, a spirometer would be recording which lung volume?
Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the blood is called
Exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and the metabolically active tissues is called
Pulmonary diffusion is also known as
Capillary diffusion is also known as
PCO2 in the alveoli is approximately
Which of the following structures is not part of the transport zone?
External respiration refers to
movement of air into and out of the lungs, exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the blood
The primary muscles normally responsible for inspiration are
the external muscles and the diaphragm
In hemoglobin, CO2 binds to
the globular protein
At the onset of strenuous exercise, what changes would you expect to see in venous O2 content and (a-v)O2 difference, respectively?
Respiratory muscles are directly controlled by motor neurons coming from
Mean pressure in the pulmonary artery is
If chemoreceptors stimulate an increase in breathing rate and depth, this occurs because
excess CO2 needs to be "blown off" (removed)
Air flows into the lungs in this order:
Nose -> Nasal conchae -> Pharynx -> Larynx -> Trachea -> Bronchii -> Bronchiole Alveolus -> Pulmonary capillaries (hemoglobin)
A typical partial pressure for oxygen in the alveoli is
Which of the following is NOT true regarding gas diffusion?
Diffusion can occur only if there is a pressure gradient and the flow is from low pressure to high pressure
The major portion of oxygen that is transported in the blood is in
the form of hemoglobin
Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood principally as
Each 100ml of blood contains an average of ________________ hemoglobin in men and __________________ in women.
14 to 18 g; 12 to 16 g
A typical value for arterial-venous oxygen difference at rest is
4 ml O2 per 100 ml of blood
Blood oxygen-carrying capacity
is dependent on blood hemoglobin concentration
Hemoglobin that is bound to oxygen is referred to as
Approximately _______________% of the carbon dioxide transported in the blood is transported as bicarbonate ion.
60 to 70
Myoglobin found in skeletal muscle serves to
transport oxygen from the cell membrane to the mitocondria
Based on what you have learned about the respiratory system, voluntary hyperventilation would
decrease ventilatory drive, result in a decrease in alveolar and arterial carbon dioxide
The oxygen-carrying function of the blood is provided by
During normal expiration,
air moves our of the lungs because of a pressure gradient between the intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure
An increase in heart rate that occurs in anticipation of competition is due to
an increase in stimulation of sympathetic nervous system
The decrease in maximal heart rate that occurs with age can best be estimated using
HR(max)= 208-(.7 x age)
Steady-state heart rate during light to moderate submaximal exercise demonstrates what response pattern?
gradual increase and plateaus in 2 to 3 minutes
Cardiorespiratory endurance training results in which of the following heart rate adaptation(s)?
a decreased resting heart rate and a lower steady-state heart rate for the same absolute workload before training, a decreased resting heart rate and an unchanged or slightly reduced maximal heart rate
Submaximal exercise tests can be used to estimate aerobic capacity based on
the linear relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption
At near-maximal and maximal exercise intensities, _____________ is a major determinant of cardiorespiratory endurance capacity
Which of the following would cause a decrease in stroke volume?
an increase in afterload
Resting stroke volume _____________ in the supine position
Most research suggests that maximal stroke volume is attained at
40 to 60% VO2(max)
Of the following factors, which is considered most important contributor to the improvement in stroke volume with endurance training?
increased blood volume
If, during maximal exercise, diastolic filling time is reduced, what is the net effect?
reduced EDV, decreased afterload, shortened preload
Which of the following factors is (are) responsible for the increases in resting, submaximal, and maximal stroke volumes elicited by endurance training?
increased blood volume, a stronger heart, reduced systemic vascular resistance
During a graded exercise test, you would expect to see a systolic blood pressure _____________ while diastolic blood pressure ______________.
rise linearly; changes very little
Increases in blood pressure during exercise are best explained by
increases in cardiac output
Blood pressure is calculated as
heart rate x stroke volume x total peripheral resistance OR cardiac output x total peripheral resistance
The Valsalva maneuver is a forced exhalation against a closed glottis. This action may cause
reduced venous return, increased pressure in the chest cavity, dizziness and fainting
The _____________________ nervous system causes a shunting of blood from the _____________________ circulation to facilitate exercise demands.
An athlete started taking long cycling rides and bought a heart rate watch to monitor HR. She noticed after about 40 minutes of riding at a steady pace HR gradually increased without increasing work output. What is the cause of cardiovascular drift since cardiac output is unchanged?
Cardiovascular drift may be observed during
prolonged, heavy submaximal exercise; moderate exercise in high temperatures; prolonged exercise at intensities greater than 70% V/od/O2(max)
What causes the cardiovascular system to be "turned on" at the onset of exercise?
central command of the brain
The onset of exercise leads to a rapid increase in ventilation; the more gradual second phase of the respiratory increase is controlled by
changes in chemical status of arterial blood
Although exercise-induced dyspnea is sensed as an inability to breathe, the underlying cause is
an inability to adjust breathing to blood PCO2 and H+, often related to poor conditioning of respiratory muscles, fatigue of respiratory muscles and the inability of the body to reestablish normal homeostasis
is an increase in ventilation in excess of that need for exercise metabolism, often occurs in anticipation of exercise, often occurs with stress or anxiety
The ability to hold your breath longer during swimming after a period of hyperventilation is due to
decreased carbon dioxide in the blood
Ventilatory regulation appears to be most sensitive to which of the following chemical stimuli?
A sudden increase in ventilation that exceeds metabolic demands is referred to as
The Valsalva manuever
is a forced exhalation against a closed glottis, increases intrathoracic pressure, decreases venous return, is dangerous and may cause a heart attack
During exercise of progressively increasing intensity, the ventilatory breakpoint
is the point at which there is a disproportionate increase in ventilation, reflects the respiratory response to increased carbon dioxide levels, is the result of oxygen delivery no longer matching oxygen demand
During maximal exercise, which population has demonstrated that the respiratory system (ventilation) limits performance?
the highly trained elite athlete
does not generally limit performance in healthy individuals
The tolerable limits for arterial blood pH extend from
6.9 to 7.5
is a condition where H+ concentrations are above normal, is a condition where pH is low
Which of the following serve as buffers for the body?
bicarbonate, inorganic phosphates, proteins, hemoglobin
Recovery of blood lactate at resting levels is facilitated by
continued low-intensity exercise
Any factor that increases venous return
causes an increase in ventricular filling, is called preload, is related to end-diastolic volume
Muscle hypertrophy refers to
an increase in muscle size
Absolute strength gains are typically greatest in
When motor units contract more synchronously,
muscles increase the rate of force development
A decrease in the size of individual muscle fibers is referred to as
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the effects of resistance training on muscular strength and size?
Strength gains can be achieved without structural changes in muscle but not without neural adaptations.
Transient hypertrophy is primarily stimulated by
The increase in strength that occurs with resistance training results from
hypertrophy of muscle, increased motor unit recruitment, synchronization
Neural mechanisms that may help explain some of the strength gains from resistance training include:
increased synchronization of motor unit activation, rate coding, decreased co-activation of agonists and antagonists
Protein synthesis ____________________ during exercise and ________________ after exercise.
Reduced neurological inhibition
may partially explain superhuman feats, may partially explain strength gains in the absence of hypertrophy, occurs as a result of resistance training, allowing the muscle to reach greater levels of strength
If both the agonist and antagonist contracted with equal force development, no movement would occur; this is an example of
Transient hypertrophy, the temporary enlargement of muscles that occurs during a weightlifting workout, results mainly from
accumulation of fluid in the interstitial and intracellular spaces of the muscle
The "pumped up" state of a muscle immediately after a single intensive bout of resistance training is caused by
increased fluid accumulation in the muscle
The muscle fiber hypertrophy that occurs with chronic resistance training appears to result from
a net increase in muscle protein synthesis
Muscle fiber hypertrophy may be partially explained by
training-induced increases in size within existing myofibrils, training-induced increases in size within existing actin and myosin filaments, training-induced increases in size within existing sarcoplasm and connective tissue, training-induced increases in the number of myofibrils and actin and myosin filaments
Which hormone produced by the body is thought to be at least partially responsible for increases in muscle growth?
An increase in the number of muscle fibers in a muscle is referred to as
Most research evidence indicates that training-induced whole-muscle hypertrophy in humans
results mainly from increases in the size of individual muscle fibers
It appears that early increases in muscular strength are primarily due to
The loss of strength caused by muscle immobilization
reflects decreased protein synthesis and decreased neuromuscular activation in the immobilized muscle
When muscle atrophies, the cross-sectional area _________________ and several studies have shown this effect to greater in type ____________________ fibers.
Which of the following best describes the training adaptations exhibited by women compared to those of men when participating in identical resistance training programs?
Women experience similar gains in strength but smaller gains in muscle mass.
Which of the following are correct concerning fiber type conversion?
Cross innervation studies demonstrated interconversion between type 1 and type 11 fibers.
Chronic, low-frequency nerve stimulation transforms type 11 motor units into type 1 motor units.
Transition of type11x fibers to type 11a occurs with resistance training. A combination of high-intensity resistance training and short-interval speed work can lead to a conversion of type 1 and type 11a fibers.
Acute muscle soreness immediately after exercise is a result of
accumulation of end products of exercise
What type of muscular contraction is most likely to induce delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)?
The most likely cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) appears to be
structural damage to the muscle cells
Which of the following activities would result in the greatest degree of muscle soreness 24 to 48 hours after the exercise?
running downhill at 6.0mph, 10% grade
Muscle cramps may be caused by
disturbances in fluid and electrolyte balances, high rates of sweating, sustained alpha-motor neuron activity, muscle fatigue
The most important reason for the loss of strength (force-generating capacity) associated with DOMS is
failure within the excitation-contraction coupling process
Muscle soreness (DOMS) can be prevented or minimized by
reducing the eccentric component of the muscle action during early training, beginning training at low intensity and gradually increasing training, beginning training with a high-intensity, exhaustive bout of exercise causing more soreness early and less soreness later in the program
It appears that increases in muscular strength cannot be achieved without
Muscle atrophy may be defined as
a wasting away (decrease) in muscle size
Which of the following is the best objective laboratory measure of aerobic power, or cardiorespiratory endurance?
maximal oxygen uptake
maximal cardiac output x maximal (a-v)O2 difference
Which of the following is a mechanism of increased stroke volume after endurance training?
increased plasma volume, increased filling time, increased LV wall thickness and chamber volume
Which chamber of the heart adapts most to chronic endurance training?
The best definition of cardiorespiratory endurance is
the entire body's ability to sustain prolonged, dynamic exercise using large muscle groups
Rob has been training for a 10k race off and on over the last couple of years and has been keeping track of his postworkout heart rate recovery. When was he probably most aerobically fit?
last December, when his HR decreased from 190 too 100 beats/min after 1 min
Cardiorespiratory endurance training results in which of the following heart rate adaptation(s)?
a decreased resting heart rate and an unchanged or slightly reduced maximal heart rate
With endurance training,
left ventricular chamber size increases, left ventricular wall increases in thickness, EDV increases
The heart of a highly trained endurance athlete would be characterized by all of the following:
increased end-diastolic pressure, increased maximal heart rate, increased ejection fraction
Which of the following factors is (are) responsible for the increase in resting, submaximal, and maximal stroke volumes elicited by endurance training?
increased blood volume, a stronger heart, reduced systemic vascular resistance
After aerobic training, submaximal pulmonary ventilation will be __________________, and maximal pulmonary ventilation will be _____________________.
Cardiorespiratory endurance-trained athletes are able to achieve much higher maximal cardiac outputs than the average person because of ____________________
an increased maximal stroke volume and increased ventricular size
Chronic endurance training results in what change to muscle fibers?
type 1 fiber hypertrophy
After aerobic training, increased capillary formation and capillary recruitment combine to lead to
increased capillary density
In response to aerobic training, muscle fiber mitochondria
increase in size and number
Aerobic training leads to ________________ in lactate threshold.
After chronic endurance training, RER during submaximal exercise indicates that the body is
depending more on fat, less on carbohydrate for fuel
Which of these external factors plays the biggest role in determining VO2(max)?
Which of the following happen with aerobic training?
Resting heart rate decreases as a result of decreased sympathetic activity, resting heart rate decreases as a result of increased parasympathetic activity, steady-state submaximal heart rate at the same exercise intensity measured before training declines
At very high heart rates during cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, stroke volume may actually decrease because of
inadequate ventricular filling resulting from a shortening of diastole
What factor(s) affect heart rate recovery time?
Exercise in hot environments can prolong heart rate recovery time.
An increase in mechanical efficiency is a possible explanation for
a lower oxygen consumption at a given submaximal exercise workload after training
Cardiac output at rest and during submaximal exercise at a given exercise intensity
does not change much following endurance training, or may slightly decrease
Resistance training causes
an increase in the thickness of the left ventricular wall, but no change in resting blood pressure
Cardiorespiratory endurance training causes which of the following changes?
an increase in plasma volume and an increase in red blood cell volume
Reduced blood viscosity
facilitates blood flow through the blood vessels, enhances oxygen delivery to the active tissues, is due to increases in the fluid portion of blood
Which best describes the changes in the number of red blood cells as a result of aerobic training?
Which of the following are training adaptations to aerobic training?
increased pulmonary diffusion during maximal exercise
The arterial-venous oxygen difference at maximal rates of work ____________ with aerobic training due to _________________.
increases; increases in oxygen extraction by the tissues
A reduced RER during submaximal exercise after training is due to
an increased utilization of free fatty acids
Short-term adaptation to environmental stress is
85 degrees F is equal to ________ degrees C.
What is the primary method for discharging the resting body's heat?
The primary avenue of heat loss during exercise is
Which of the following are considered avenues of dry heat exchange?
convection, conduction, radiation
Which of the following environmental conditions would provide the greatest heat stress?
still air and clear sky
Which of the following can serve as modes of both heat gain and heat loss from the body?
radiation, convection, conduction
When air temperature is close to skin temperature, the only available means of cooling the body is
Internal body temperature at rest is regulated at approximately
37 degrees C
Thermoreceptors detect changes in temperature and relay this information to your body's thermostat located
in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus
The receptors that monitor temperature of blood as it circulates through the body are
During heavy exercise in a hot environment, there is competition for blood supply between the __________________ and the ____________________.
active muscles, skin
During light sweating, the sweat that forms contains __________________ sodium and chloride; however, when the sweat rate increases during exercise, the sodium and chloride content of sweat is _____________.
very little; considerably high
Exercise training and repeated heat exposure will decrease the concentration of _____________________ in one's sweat.
potassium, calcium, sodium
Which of the following is (are) major determinants of both sweat rate and sweat sodium loss?
heat acclimation, aerobic training, genetics
Which of the following changes occur(s) with heat acclimatization?
Sweating begins earlier during exercise, sweat becomes more dilute, sweating rate during exercise is increased
Mineral and fluid loss in sweat during exercise in the heat stimulates increased release of ______________________, thus reducting fluid and mineral loss in the urine
aldosterone and ADH
The environmental temperature is over 34.5 degrees C (94 degrees F) with a humidity of 10%. Under these conditions, your body's only major avenue of body heat loss would be
The heat index
is a complex equation involving air temperature and relative humidity, is a measure of how hot it feels, or how we perceive the heat, and does not do a good job of reflecting the physiological stress on humans, is limited of use in exercise physiology
Which of the following provides a single temperature reading to estimate the cooling capacity of the surrounding environment?
The coefficient with the highest weighting in the WBGT index is associated with the
wet bulb temperature
The heat disorder brought on by sodium losses and dehydration that accompanies high rates of sweating is
An increase in internal body temperature to a value exceeding 40 degrees C (104 degrees F), cessation of active sweating (although sweat may remain on the body), rapid bounding pulse and respiration, and confusion, disorientation, or unconsciousness are all signs and symptoms of
Extreme fatigue, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, fainting, and a weak, rapid pulse are all signs and symptoms of
Distance running races in the summer should be scheduled
only in the early morning or only in the evening (while it is still light)
Which is the correct order by which our bodies avoid excessive heat loss?
peripheral vasoconstriction, nonshivering thermogenesis, and shivering
Children have more difficulty in maintaining body temperature in the cold than do adults because
children have smaller surface-area-to-body mass ratio
When men and women of similar body fat mass and size are compared, ____________________ difference is noted in body temperature regulation with exposure to the cold.
Which of the following contribute to increasing total body insulation?
increased subcutaneous fat thickness
Wind increases _____________________ heat loss and therefore increases the rate of cooling.
is an index based on the cooling effect of wind, or the cooling power of the environment
The rate of heat loss in cold water is affected by
body size, conduction, water movement
Cooling a muscle
causes it to contract with less force, causes muscle-shortening velocity to decrease, causes muscle power to decrease
Hazards of excessive cold exposure include
injury to both peripheral tissues and the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, death from cardiac arrest while respiration was still functional, cooling the sinoatrial node, leading to a gradual decrease in heart rate, and ultimately, cardiac arrest
Hypoxia is best defined as
Barometric pressure on Earth
varies slightly with changes in climatic conditions
Why is water vapor pressure lower at altitude?
Cold air cannot hold very much water
As altitude increases,
the partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen is reduced in direct proportion with increasing altitude
During acute altitude exposures, maximal-intensity aerobic exercise is characterized by
diminished maximal cardiac output
During acute altitude exposures, cardiac output increases due to
increased heart rate
Within hours of reaching altitude, red blood cell concentration increases due to
decreased plasma volume
High-altitude training and physical activity
may lead to dehydration, promote evaporation of skin moisture, and increase respiratory losses of moisture to the air
Increased pulmonary ventilation during acute exposure to altitude is stimulated by
VO2(max) starts to decline at approximately
Who would have the greatest need for supplemental oxygen on Mt. Everest?
anyone with VO2(max) under 50ml x kg-1 x min-1
Hypoxemia at high altitudes
is a direct reflection of lower alveolar PO2
Which metabolic system is most impacted by altitude?
The pressure gradient for gas exchange at the level of muscles at high altitudes
is significantly reduced
The time line for acclimation is roughly
three weeks for moderate altitude plus one week for every additional 600m
Which of these training strategies will confer maximal improvements in performance?
live at altitude, train at sea level
Chronic exposure to high altitude triggers the release of __________________ that stimulates red blood cell production.
What reaction to altitude seems to put people at the highest risk for developing acute mountain sickness?
inadequate ventilatory response
What is the best way to minimize the risk of acute altitude sickness?
gradual ascent (no more than 300m/day)
Which of the following would be the most appropriate treatment for HACE?
An acute response to high-altitude exposure during submaximal exercise is
a decrease in stroke volume
During maximal or exhaustive exercise at high altitudes,
maximal cardiac output decreases
When an athlete is competing at altitude, the event in which that person would most likely suffer from poor performance is the
Ascent to altitude
increases basal metabolic rate
Which of the following is (are) true of the environmental challenges faced at high altitudes, compared to sea level?
Eyes and skin must be protected from an increased intensity of solar radiation, Exertion is more difficult because of a reduced partial pressure of oxygen.
An acute response to high altitude is
hypoxia, an increase in anaerobic metabolism, and an increase in lactic acid production
There is an increased reliance on _________________________ for fuel, both at rest and during submaximal exercise.
Chronic exposure to altitude leads to
an increase in submaximal cardiac output, acid-base readjustment, and an increase in the blood's oxygen-carrying capacity
A person's distance-running performance at high altitude primarily suffers from
reduced partial pressure of oxygen in air
Strategies for competing at altitude include
competing as soon as possible after arriving at altitude (within 24 hours), training at altitude a minimum of 2 weeks before competing, and reducing workout intensity between 60 and 70% of sea-level intensity when first arriving at higher altitudes
The best strategy for competing at altitude is
competing within the first 24 hours of arriving at altitude
Symptoms of acute mountain sickness include
headache, dyspnea, and insomnia
Signs and symptoms of high-altitude pulmonary edema include
dyspnea, cyanosis, excessive fatigue, and mental confusion and loss of conciousness
A neurological condition characterized by mental confusion, lethargy, and ataxia progressing to unconsciousness and death is
high-altitude cerebral edema
Acute mountain sickness
generally develops within the first four days of altitude exposure, can progress to high-altitude pulmonary edema, and is characterized by nausea, headache, vomiting, dyspnea, and /or insomnia
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