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History Set Unit 5 Combined - Elizabeth Grossi
History Set Unit 5 Combined - Elizabeth Grossi
Terms in this set (42)
What was sectionalism
Sectionalism was favoring the interests of one section or region over the interest of the entire country.
Who was Wilmot Proviso?
Proposed that slavery be banned in all of the gains of Mexican American war. David Wilmot proposal divided both parties along sectional lines.
The Pennsylvania representative was so adamantly against the extension of slavery to lands ceded by Mexico, he made a proposition that would divide the Congress. On August 8, 1846, Wilmot introduced legislation in the House that boldly declared, "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist" in lands won in the Mexican-American War. If he was not opposed to slavery, why would Wilmot propose such an action? Why would the north, which only contained a small, but growing minority, of abolitionists, agree?
Wilmot and other northerners were angered by President Polk. They felt that the entire Cabinet and national agenda were dominated by southern minds and southern principles. Polk was willing to fight for southern territory, but proved willing to compromise when it came to the north. Polk had lowered the tariff and denied funds for internal improvements, both to the dismay of northerners. Now they felt a war was being fought to extend the southern way of life. The term "Slave Power" jumped off the lips of northern lawmakers when they angrily referred to their southern colleagues. It was time for northerners to be heard.
He envisioned California as a place where free white Pennsylvanians could work without the competition of slave labor. Since the north was more populous and had more Representatives in the House, the Wilmot Proviso passed. Laws require the approval of both houses of Congress, however. The Senate, equally divided between free states and slave states could not muster the majority necessary for approval. Angrily the House passed Wilmot's Proviso several times, all to no avail. It would never become law.
What happened in the election of 1848?
Polk didn't run again. Cass (democrat) ran against Taylor (whigs). Taylor won.
What was the result of California becoming a state?
The Missouri compromise was what said that California was to become a slave state. Then, after gold was found in a pond, thousands rushed to Cali, known as the "California Gold Rush."
What was the Compromise of 1850?
5 bills started into place by Taylor. Finished and signed by Millard Fillmore. Cali was admitted as a free state. Also, banned slave trade in capital. The Compromise of 1850 consists of five laws passed in September of 1850 that dealt with the issue of slavery. In 1849 California requested permission to enter the Union as a free state, potentially upsetting the balance between the free and slave states in the U.S. Senate. Senator Henry Clay introduced a series of resolutions on January 29, 1850, in an attempt to seek a compromise and avert a crisis between North and South. As part of the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act was amended and the slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished. Furthermore, California entered the Union as a free state and a territorial government was created in Utah. Also, an act was passed settling a boundary dispute between Texas and New Mexico that also established a territorial government in New Mexico.
Southern benefits of it?
Popular sovereignty will choose if Mexican gains are slave or state. Also, Fugitive slave rule.
What was the new political party?
The republican party. It was a new anti slavery party. The goal was to stop slavery into western territory.
the Dred Scott Case
it was a US Supreme Court case in 1857 stating that slaves weren't citizens even in states that have abolished slavery. Dred Scott who was the slave of an army doctor who had traveled to a state that had abolished slavery. Scott sued and argued he was now free. But, he could not get out because the supreme court ruled that he was not a citizen and so he can't sue. The court ruled that rather he was property which was protected in the constitution. The ruling went even further by stating that Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory. Thus the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
The fugitive slave law
The law that slaves who ran from the South to the North must be returned to their owner because they were considered property. Needed no trial and slave owners could just get any random person if they swear.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
it was a fictional story written by Harriet Beecher Stowe that showed the cruelty of slavery. the story was very popular and read by many Americans.
This concept was pushed by Sentor Lewis Cass of Michigan who was running for President. People hold the final authority in all matters of government by voting for the law to be passed without congress doing it all. The idea meant that people in a state or territory could vote for or against slavery.
to withdraw from a political alliance or organization
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War.
Confederate States of America
The 7 states that that seceded America (Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas and South Carolina) created their own temporary confederation called "Confederate States of America".
John Brown's raid
John Brown slaughtered 4 slave owners trying to cause fear about slavery. Then, after that he went on a rampage. In 1859, the abolitionist John Brown went to seize the U.S arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
What were the great plains?
Wide spaces but the farmers did not like the land so did not settle. Became big route west.
What was Manifest Destiny?
The dream to go from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. from MA to Cali.
What happened in the Northwest?
Fertile land stretching beyond the rockies.
What was the culture in the Southwest
Mexican settled there. It was a huge destination. Settlers gong west where Texas and Arizona.
What was the Oregon Trail?
The trail made by the pioneers headed west to the Oregon territory. First people there were the Whitman family. Many people took the chance of the dangerous journey.
What were the Fur Traders
Fur trading was big in Oregon John Astor sent the first group. Created the fur company.
Who was Donner Party?
-famous for failure to get across Sierras in time to avoid serious weather conditions chance of the dangerous journey.-went the long way, 39 died out of 87 people->some survivors resorted to cannibalism - rescued 48 survivors
The Mexican American War
Mexico owned Texas and was going to abolish slavery. Texas rebelled, and broke away and formed its own republic but they wanted to join the U.S. Mexico wanted the U.S. to stay out of it or war would result. The U.S. annexes Texas. Mexico declares war on the U.S. (1846 - 1848). The U.S. wins and forces Mexico to cede the land currently known as CA, TX, NV, UT, AZ, CO, WY, NM.
What was a mountain men
A mountain man is a trapper and explorer who lives in the wilderness. Mountain men were most common in the North American Rocky Mountains from about 1810 through the 1880s.
Texas wins independence
1821-Mexico gains independence. Americans Settled into Texas. General Antonio López De Santa Anna made a dictatorship. 1836 Texas Brakes away. Lopez goes to war. Eventually caught him and forced him to sign a treaty.
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?
1805-1879 A prominent white abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. After the abolition of slavery, he continued working on other reform movements, especially temperance and women's suffrage.
Who was Fredrick Douglas?
An escaped slave that turned into a powerful speaker for anti slavery. Wrote a newspaper called The North Star about slavery.
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North saved 300 slaves.
the Cotton Gin
1793 Eli Whitney invented it. Can produce cotton 50X faster than without the cotton gin. Much more official and cotton became much more profitable.
Went from agriculture economy to industrial factory economy. Started in BR Machines replaced hand tool Mills next to water for power
Positive results of Industrial REV?
expanded U.S for good. Manufactures became much more efficient. Now women can gain moolah. Birth of Modern Cities
Drawbacks of industrial revolution
7, 8 yrs old were working in harsh unsafe conditions. No fresh air No protection
What were the big turnpikes in U.S?
Lancaster was the first turnpike ever. It was the first main road and the lognest one. Made to be more efficient for farmers.
Free African Americans in the South
- not all were enslaved; 6% purchased their own freedom
- laws denied aa's basic rights
- often slave catchers kidnapped them to sell them into slavery
What is a capitalist
people who invest in a business and get a portion of control over the company
The Missouri Compromise
1. Maine became free state Missouri
2. Slave and Slave owners can go after escaped slaves.
3. The fugitive slave law starts. In an effort to preserve the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states, the Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Furthermore, with the exception of Missouri, this law prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36° 30´ latitude line. In 1854, the Missouri Compromise was repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Three years later the Missouri Compromise was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott decision, which ruled that Congress did not have the authority to prohibit slavery in the territories.
the Erie Canal
linked the economies of western farms and eastern cities; started a frenzy of canal building in other states.
The Wilderness Road is a massive moving of about 300 000 people to the Southeast of the country, to the area of Kentucky. Daniel Boone was one of the first to use it. The Wilderness Road was the principal route used by settlers for more than fifty years to reach Kentucky from the East. In 1775, Daniel Boone blazed a trail for the Transylvania Company from Fort Chiswell in Virginia through the Cumberland Gap into central Kentucky. It was later lengthened, following Native American trails, to reach the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville. The Wilderness Road was steep and rough, and it could only be traversed on foot or horseback. Despite the adverse conditions, thousands of people used it.
Effects of Lincoln's 1860 election
-Fearing the govt was now run by anti-slavery forces:
-South Carolina seceded!
-6 others followed: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas
-Formed Confederate States of America
-Mississippi senator Jefferson Davis as president
Conflict over the expansion of slavery into the Kansas Territory during its transition to statehood. People who wanted to abolish slavery battled slavery supporters with violence.
Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Lincoln Douglas debate
1858. Lincoln challenged Stephen Douglas to a series of 7 debates. Though Douglas won the senate seat, these debates gave Lincoln fame and helped him to later on win the presidency. They mostly talked over the debate of slavery. These debates were a foreshadowing of the Civil War.