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red bone marrow
the connective tissue within certain bones that produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
the process of making red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the red bone marrow
yellow bone marrow
contains adipose cells that store triglycerides as a reserve of potential chemical energy
a layer of hyaline cartilage in growing bone located in each metaphysis that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length
the bony structure that results when the cartilage in the epiphyseal (growth) plate is replaced by bone at about ages 18-21, and bone has stopped growing in length
a thin, shock-absorbing layer of hyaline cartilage covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation with another bone
a covering that surrounds the external bone surface composed of an outer fibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue and an inner osteogenic layer
a hollow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis that contains yellow bone marrow in adults
a hard connective tissue containing an abundant mineralized extracellular matrix that surrounds widely separated cells
the process where mineral salts are deposited in the collagen fiber framework, hardening the bone matrix
this describes how the collagen fibers of bone enable it to resist being stretched or torn apart
a bone-building cell that synthesizes and secretes collagen fibers needed to form the matrix of bone tissue
a mature bone cell that maintains its regular metabolism, such as nutrient and waste exchange with blood
a huge cell that releases enzymes and acids that digest the protein and mineral components of bone matrix
compact bone tissue
the strongest form of bone tissue that makes up the bulk of the diaphysis of a long bone
a space running longitudinally through an osteon of bone, containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
rings of calcified extracellular matrix layered around the central canal of an osteon
the tiny channels filled with extracellular fluid radiating in all directions from the lacunae, connecting them to each another and to the central canals
a repeating structural unit of bone consisting of a central canal, concentric lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, and canaliculi; also called a haversian system
an area between osteons that is a remnant of older osteons that have been partially destroyed during bone rebuilding or growth
spongy bone tissue
this consists of an irregular latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae, with spaces in-between filled with red bone marrow
this enters the diaphysis of a bone through a perforating (Volkmann's) canal and delivers blood to the periosteum and outer part of compact bone tissue
this passes through a foramen in compact bone, and enters the medullary cavity, where it divides into proximal and distal branches that supply both the inner compact bone tissue of the diaphysis and the spongy bone tissue and red marrow of the epiphyseal plates
the process by which bone forms during embryo and fetal development, growth from infancy through adulthood, remodeling, and fracture repair; also called osteogenesis
the cluster of mesenchymal cells that differentiate into osteoblasts at the site where bone will develop during intramembranous ossification
growth from within a bone during endochondral ossification, resulting in an increase in the bone's length
primary ossification center
during endochondral ossificaiton, a region near the middle of the cartilage model where bone tissue replaces most of the disintegrating calcified cartilage
secondary ossification center
this develops in the epiphyses of bone during endochondral ossification
the breakdown of bone extracellular matrix by osteoclasts that is part of the normal development, maintenance, and repair of bone tissue
describes when the broken ends of a bone protrude through the skin; also referred to as "compound"
describes when the broken ends of a bone do not break the skin; also referred to as "simple"
describes when a bone is splintered, crushed, or broken into pieces, and smaller bone fragments are found in-between the broken ends
describes a partial fracture in children where one side of the bone is broken and the other side bends
describes when one end of a fractured bone is forcefully driven into the interior of the other end
a fracture of the distal end of the radius, in which the distal fragment is displaced posteriorly
a series of microscopic fissures in bone that forms without any evidence of injury to other tissues, and results from repeated, strenuous activities such as running or jumping
a mass of clotted blood that forms around the site of a bone fracture within 6-8 hours after the injury
a mass of repair tissue consisting of collagen fibers and cartilage that bridges the broken ends of a bone within 3 weeks after the injury
this forms during fracture repair when the fibrocartilage is converted to spongy bone; lasts 3-4 months
describes when the fractured ends of a bone are brought into alignment by manual manipulation, and the skin remains intact
describes when the fractured ends of a bone are brought into alignment by a surgical procedure in which internal fixation devices such as screws, plates, pins, rods, and wires are used
the most important regulator of calcium ion exchange that increases blood calcium level
a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that decreases blood calcium level by inhibiting osteoclast activity
a normal effect of aging on bone tissue involving the loss of calcium and other minerals from the extracellular matrix, which reduces bone mass
an age-related disorder characterized by decreased bone mass and increased sensitivity to fractures, often as a result of decreased levels of estrogen
a disease of children that results from inadequate calcification of the extracellular bone matrix, usually due to a vitamin D deficiency; growing bones become "soft" or rubbery and are easily deformed
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