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IB Psychology Review

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Experiment
involes the manipulation of the independent variable to see what effect it has on the dependent variable, while attempting to control the influence of all other extraneous variables
Laboratory
researchers deliberately manipulate the independent variable while maintaining strict control over extraneous variables through standarised procedures in a controlled environment
Field
researchers deliberately manipulates the independent variable, but does so in the subject's own natural environment
Natural/Quasi
independent variable is changed by natural occurence; the researcher just records the effect on the dependent variable. Quasi experiments are any where the control is lacking over the independent variable.
Observation
involves the precise measurement of naturally occuring behaviour in an objective way
Observers may be disclosed so subject know they are being studied, or undisclosed(hidden/covert)
Naturalistic
involves the recording of spontaneously occuring behaviour in the subject's own natural environment
Controlled
involves the recording of apontaneously occuring behaviour, but under conditions contrived by the research (e.g. in the laboratory)
Participant
involve the reseacher becoming involved in the everyday life of the subjects, either with or without their knowledge
Case Study
idiographic mehtod involving in-depth and detailed study of an individual or particular group, often applied to unusual or valuable examples of behaviour which may provide important insights into psychological function or refuation of psychological theory
Correlations
method of data analysis which measures the relationship between two or more variables to see if a trend or systematic pattern exist between them. Inferantial datat can be used to arrive at a correlation coefficient which indicates the strength and type of correlation: (+1)positive-increase+increase, (-1)negative-increase+decrease, no correlation (0)
Sampling
process of selecting subjects to study from target pop. (a specific section of human kind); results of study on sample will be generalised back to target pop. thru inference, sample should rep. (typical) of target pop, as possible; should be sufficient size (e.g. 30) to rep. variety of individuals in target pop., but not so large as to make study uneconomical in terms of time and resources
Random
truly random sampling only occurs when every member of target pop. has equal chance of being selected
Stratified
involves dividing target pop. into important subcategoires (or strata) then selecting members of sub categories in proportion that they occur in target population
Opportunity
involves selecting subjects that are around and avaiable at the time, an effort may be made to not be biased in selecting particular types of subject
Self-Selecting/Volunteer
consist of those individuals who have determined their own involovement in a study
Cluster
randomly select one section of target pop.
Purposive
individuals are expected to offer most detailed or otherwise most appropriate info for the study will be approached and invited to partcipate; participants are purposely approached
Snowball
participants invite other people they know to participate; participants recruit others
Demand Characteristics
participants act accordingly to the nature of th reseach they are participating in
Hawthorne effect
participants try to to preform to meet exoectations of reseacher
Screw you effect
participants try/act that might sabotage researcher's aims
Quantitative
methods assume variables can be identified + relationships b/w them measured using statistics, with aim of infering cause-effect relationship; surveys, experiment, correlation,
Qualitative
interested in trying to describe human behaviour by investigating the subjective meaning that people attach to their experience so it can be described w/o necessarily removing participants from real context within which they live and act; case study, interview, observations
Triangulation
involves different approaches to gathering data in a single study in oder to improve the trustworthiness of conclusions; data, researcher, theoretical, mathodological
Confounding variable/extraneous variables
facts that can influence the results accuracy
Overt
participants know they're being observed and may even be able to see observer
Covert
participant do not know they are bing observed and can not see observer
Non-participant
researcher remain outside group being studied, even though min the same room
Participant
becoming part of the group of people being observed
Culture
The norms and values that define a society
Norms
Behaviors and values of society
Emic
Culture specific behaviors (ie marriage and kinship rules, specific time orientation, what is valued in education, how stress is experienced)
Etic
Universal behaviors ( ie marriage, kinship principles, concepts of intelligence, time orientation, education, stress; we all share etics they are the broad topic)
Individualism
The self is unique; exists in terms of harmonious relationships with others, fits into depersonalized categories of groups; high rate of mobility- relationships based on interests
Collectivism
Obligations to close interpersonal relationships are not required; social identity is relational- harmony and cooperation is valued; high level of focus of locus of control ( the group defines the self and behavior).
Power Distance
Extent to which less powerful members of society expect and accept unequal power distribution
Masculine/Feminine
This dimension forms the basis of what psychologist refer to as gender, and your perception of your own maleness and femaleness is your gender identity.
Compliance Techniques
Foot in the door, lowballing, and social influence.
Foot in the door
Getting people to make a commitment to something small, with the hope of persuading them to agree to something larger. Example: Freedman and Fraser- drive carefully signs (small then large) the results can be explained by the desire to be consistent and commitment.
Lowballing
Changing an offer to make it less attractive to the target person after this person has agreed to it ; odds are that you will do the activity.
Social influence
A change in behavior as a result of real or imagined group pressure or norms. It is the results of our most basic human behaviors- social comparison- our tendency to compare with others to validate our own behavior or opinion.
Conformity
The tendency to adjust one's thoughts, feelings, or behavior in ways that are in agreement with those of a particular individual or group, or with accepted standards about how a person should behave in specific situations (social norms).
Compliance
The results of direct pressure to respond to a request
Stereotypes
A social perception of an individual in terms of group membership or physical attributes; a generalization that is made about a group and then attributed to members of the group. Can be positive or negative.
Confirmation bias
People tend to overlook information that contradicts what they already believe; this means that people pay attention to behaviors that confirm what they believe about a group and ignore those behaviors contrary to their beliefs.
Formation of Sterotypes
Personal experience and gatekeepers (media, parents, or members of our culture)
Grain of truth hypothesis
Experience with an individual from one group will be generalized to the entire group
Illusory correlations
People see a relation between two variables even when such variables do not exist; this is cognitive bias (attribution error).
Cognitive dissonance
When we notice that others are not behaving in the same way, or that they think differently, it causes anxiety.
Social Cognition
Helps to make sense of our world and to master it; they also enable communication to take place among members of a community.
Spotlight anxiety
Emotional distress and pressure that may undermine performance
Social representations
Shared beliefs and explanations held by the society in which we live or the group to which we belong; foundation for social cognition. Cultural schemas that are fundamental to the ID of the group.
social categorization
In-group vs out-group; once we are a member of a group we see everyone else as "them" (negative connotation)
Short-term orientation
The U.S, Germany, France, etc all value personal steadiness and stability. Focus on the future and innovation is highly valued.
Ecological fallacy
When one looks at two different cultures, it should not be assumed that two members from two different cultures must be different, or that a single member will always demonstrate the dimensions which are the norm of that culture.
Discrimination
A behavior in which a person treats someone differently based on his or her membership of a group, rather than on individual merit.
Attribution theory (Fritz Heider)
How people interpret and explain causal relationships in the social world. People are more likely to attribute someone's behavior to dispositional factors.
Actor-observer effect
People tend to make attributions about behavior depending on whether they are performing it themselves or observing somebody else do it.
Self-serving bias
Another error in attribution; this is observed when people take credit for their successes, attributing them to dispositional factors, and dissociate themselves from their failures attributing them to situational factors.
Attributional factors
Situational- something due to with external factors (ie getting a speeding ticket because your mom forgot to wake you up and you were late for school)

Dispositional- something to due with internal factors (ie that such and such is always___________)
Modesty bias
Another error in attribution;
When we explain failures In terms of lacking ability. Japanese are very modest with success when compared to Americans
Naturalistic research method
Research is done in the environments in which the behavior is most likely to take place
Fundamental attribution error
People overestimate the role of dispositional factors in an individual's behavior and underestimate the situational factors.
Social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner)
Assumes that individuals strive to improve their self-image by trying to enhance their self-esteem, based on either personal identity or various social identities.
Three basic psychological mechanisms of SIT
Social categorization, social comparison, and group membership in self-esteem.
Social comparison
People evaluate their own opinions and ideas by looking at what others do.
Use of group membership and esteem
we feed off of our groups' successes
Stereotype threat
Anxiety and resulting impaired performance that a person may experience when confronted with a negative stereotype about a group to which they belong.
Social desirability effect
Confounding variable in discrimination research; people want to fin in and might respond in such a way to do so.
Social learning theory
This theory assumes that humans learn behaviour through observational learning ; people learn by watching models and imitating their behavior
Social learning factors
Attention: Must pay attention to model

Retention: must be able to remember the behavior

Motor reproduction: observer must be able to replicate the action

Motivation: learner must want to demonstrate what they have learned
What influences motivation
Consistency: higher degree correlates to more imitation

Identification with the model; we imitate folks that look like us

Rewards/punishment

Liking the model: if we like the person or are friends with them we are more likely to imitate.
Dimensions
The perspectives of a culture based on values and cultural norms: individualism and collectivism, uncertainty verssus avodance
Uncertainty versus avodance
Deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. It indicates to what extent a culture's programmes its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.
Proxemic theory
A culture's need for "personal space"; different cultures have different perceptions of the amount of space that is required to be comfortable.
Time consciousness
Monochronic cultures focus on one thing at a time; high degree of scheduling and punctuality: meeting deadline are highly valued

Polychronic cultures focus on many things at one time; the focus is more on relationships and interactions. Interruptions are expected, and there is little frustration when things are late.
Prejudice
An attitude towards someone; may or may not be based on stereotyping.
Impression management theory
(Tedeschi and Rosenfield) Attitude change is seen as an attempt to avoid social anxiety and embarrassment, or to protect the positive view of one's own identity.
Contact hypothesis
The belief that prejudices can be lessened or eliminated by direct contact between groups.
Superordinate goals
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Factors of Conformity/Asch Paradigm
Unanimity- actors going with the flow/group answer

Group size- size of group does not matter; it just changes the dynamic

Private vs public- you might change your opinion/attitude if you are saying them outloud compared to what you say privately.

Self-esteem- lower self-esteem = conformity, higher levels with little conformity

Cultural dimension- individualism vs. collectivism; correlation between society- collectivistic are more likely to conform

Social identity- if the actor is in a in-group we share you are more likely to help or go along with something.
Stanford Prison Experiment (Philip Zimbardo)
Aim= observe the psychological effects of a prison

Summary= An ad was placed in a newspaper to obtain 24 participants. With a flip of a coin their role was determined: Prisoner or guard. After degrading the prisoners they began to take their roles seriously. The guards also began to take their roles seriously. Experiment ended after 6 days

Ethical considerations=
Psychological harm, the psychologist became part of the experiment.

Application to attribution theory/bias and conformity=
the participant started to fulfill their roles, and the prisoners conformed to the rule due to punishment.
Social Identity theory Study
In Tajel, it was found that when people are put into groups they see themselves having similar attitudes and behavior. The mix of people eventually will form a bond.
Contact hypothesis study
In Sherif's Robbers' Cave experiment, Sherif drove two groups of boys apart with the use of in-group out-group ideology. At the end of the experiment, Sherif brought the two groups back together with the use of a super-ordinate goal. The goal made the groups work past their differences to obtain a common goal.Contact hypothesis refers to the belief that prejudices can be lessened or eliminated by direct contact between groups
Observational learning study
Bandura et al. In the experiment children were exposed to two different scenarios, one where an adult modeled aggression and one where they did not. The results of the experiment supported the SLT in the fact that the kids that observed the aggression were more likely to act out in aggression.
Asch Paradigm
Study conducted by Asch wanted to explore to what extent a person would conform to an incorrect answer on a test if the response from the other members of the group was unanimous. In the study, each participant was supposed to pick a line on a card that matched the standard. When the confederates all gave the wrong answer the participant 75% of the time, agreed.
Robber's Cave Experiment
Sherif. Wanted to see if the creation of groups alone would lead to conflict between two groups of boys. The boys selected were unaware that they were in an experiment. At a summer camp the boys were separated into groups and then engaged in a series of activities to create bonding. Once settled the groups were pitted against each other. This created conflict; to diminish the hostility the two groups had to work together to solve a common problem.
Albert Bandura
SLT on violence; wanted to see if children would imitate aggression modeled by an adult and if children were more likely to imitate same-sex models. Children 3-6 were divided into groups. One group was exposed to an adult who showed aggression towards a bobo doll. The other group served as a control who watched the adult play with toys. The children were then taken to a room with toys; they were told that the toys were for other children. Bandura observed that the children who were exposed to the aggressive adult were significantly more aggressive both physically and verbally. The Study supported SLT.
Adrenaline
Fight-or-flight; arousal
Cortisol
Associated with stress; brings body back to homeostasis; arousal; memory
Melatonin
Sleep cycle; produced as the sun goes down
Oxytocin
Secreted by the hypothalamus; love hormone; TRUST
Testosterone/estrogen
Linked to sex characteristics, emotion, and levels cycle; testosterone linked to aggression.
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous system
Sensory and motor nerves (cranial and spinal)
Endocrine System
Glands: Pituitary (master gland), gonads (ovaries and testes), adrenals (adrenaline, cortisol, noradrenaline), thyroid(metabolism and growth; thyroxin), pineal (melatonin; circadian rhythm) and pancreases (insulin).
Soma
Neuron cell body
Myelin sheath
insulator for neurons; speeds up messages
Dendrite
Sends and receives electrical messages
Synaptic gap
Space between neurons; this is where neurotransmitters can be found.
Axon
Carries the electrical message
Neurotransmission
Electrical impulse
Dendritic branching
Dendrites grow when we learn or experience an injury
Mirror neurons
Specialized nerve cells that fire when a person is completing an action and when the person observes someone else completing the same action.
Neuron
Addiction cycle
Tolerance, psychological dependence, physiological dependence, addiction
EEG
Electroencephalogram: shows patterns of voltage; used for sleep, emotions, and epilepsy
PET
Positron emission tomography; monitors glucose metabolism in the brain. Uses include detecting tumors, changes in Alzheimer's, comparing norms to disorders, and comparing differences between sex.
MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging; detailed 3D picture that shows blood flow; used to definitely diagnose.
fMRI
Functional magnetic resonance imaging; 3D pictures of structures; shows where active areas are.
Plasticity
The brain's ability to rearrange the connections between its neurons due to an injury or new learning experience.
Intelligence
Cognitive process, measured, culturally biased when its measured.
Seasonal affective disorder
A subcategory of depression that is characterized by sleepiness and lethargy due to a reduced level of sunlight in autumn and winter; phototherapy is the most common treatment.
Mozart effect
Rauscher et al. Listening to Mozart for 10 min will temporarily increase spatial reasoning ability.
Martinez and Kesner
Wanted to determine the role of acetylcholine. Used rats and a maze. Found that acetylcholine was involved in creating memories.
Minnesota Twin Study
Bouchard et al. Longitudinal study on identical twins raised together and apart. Found that 70% of intelligence can be attributed to genetic inheritance. 30% is contributed to other factors.
Gazza and Sperry
The severing of the corpus callosum halts all communication between the hemispheres. They learned that each hemisphere was responsible for a set of tasks. The left is speaking, writing, math, reading; the right recognizing faces, problem-solving, spatial relationships, symbolic reasoning, and artistic abilities.
Dopamine
Pleasure; voluntary movement, and learning
Acetylcholine
Memory and muscle contraction
Serotonin
Sleep, arousal, and emotion
Norepinephrine
Stimulation of the fight-or-flight response, arousal, and alertness
Frontal lobe function
Planning, initiative, control
Parietal lobe function
Sensing and monitoring of body parts; integrates info from multiple senses.
Temporal lobe funciton
Hearing, language, and memory
Occipital lobe function
Vision
Broch's speech
Responsible for understanding grammar and communicating ideas; when damaged you can understand but can't speek.
Wernicke's area
Language processing; when damaged you can speak but can not understand what is sad to you.
Case study
Focus on a specific group of people who have something in common (ie plane crash survivors, hurricane survivors) in order to help create a hypothesis.
Naturalistic observation
Viewing people as they are in the natural environment; Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Correlations
observed associations between two variables; Positive correlation- both variables are affected in the same way; Negative correlation- one variable increases while the other decreases.
Types of bias
Observer Bias- expectations that a researcher may have that might distort his/her interpretation

Subject Bias- people tend to try and present themselves in a positive light
Hawthorne effect
We change our behavior when we know we are being watched
Experiments
the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation
Validity
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
Reliability
Can these results be replicated?
Cause-effect relationships
A relationship between two variables in which a change in one variable make the other variable change (testing whether the presence of the IV makes the DV change)
Ethical considerations
Informed consent
Deception
Debriefing
Withdrawal from the study
Confidentiality
Protection from physical or mental harm
Ecological validity
The extent to which a study is realistic or representative of real life.
Cognitive psychology
The structure and functions of the mind
Schema
A mental representation of knowledge
Explicit memory
Fact-based information that can be consciously retrieved. Divided into two categories: Semantic and episodic. Semantic= general knowledge. Episodic= personal experiences and events
Multi-store memory model
Working memory model
Role of the amygdala
Formation of explicit memories
Role of the hippocampus
Plays a role in the storage of emotional memories
Serial reproduction
One person reproduces the original story, a second person has to reproduce the first reproduction, and so on; method is meant to duplicate the process by which rumors, gossip, and legends are spread.
Le Doux's Model
Describes two biological pathways of emotions in the brain. The short route that goes from the thalamus to amygdala and the long route that passes via the neocortex and hippocampus before the emotional response happens.
Positive psychology
Focusing on people's strengths and virtues as a point of departure. Ie Alcoholism, a positive psychologist might study the resilience of those who have managed a successful recovery through AA.
Habituation
We adapt to our environment; simply we become used to the way things are.
Elizabeth Loftus and Eyewitness testimony
It is possible to create a false memory using post-event information. This proves that memory is not reliable
George Miller Study
Proposed that we can only hold 7(+/-) 2 items in Short Term Memory @ any one time.
Trace Decay Theory
The more frequently we use a memory the quicker we can recall the information.
Flashbulb Memory
A special kind of emotional memory, which refers to vivid and detailed memories of highly emotional events that appear to be recorded in the brain as though with the help of a camera;Brown and Kulik
Hermann Ebbinghaus German psychologist
1885 published book on Monday- interested in human memory. Assumed that the process of communicating something into memory involved the formation of new associations, and these associations would be strengthened thru repetition. His experiments: Learning curve and forgetful curve, and Serial position Effect
Anterograde Amnesia
The loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia.
Retrograde Amnesia
Failure to recall memories that have been stored BEFORE a trauma.
Cognitive Appraisal
Perception of a situation
Level of aspiration theory
People examine what they can gain and how likely it is that they will achieve it before making decision about what to do.
Rational choice theory
Criminal behavior is the outcome of a reasoned decision-making process. Criminals seek to benefit from the crimes they commit
Less effort hypothesis
People with higher IQ's use less energy to think than those with lower IQ's
Frontal brain hypothesis
The malfunctioning relationship between the frontal cortex and limbic system may cause criminal behavior.
Wilhelm Wundt
Structuralism; father of psychology; consciousness
Edward Titchener
Structural; introspection, empathy
William James
Founded functional psychology; father of American psychology
Sigmund Freud
Unconscious mind; hysteria; interpretation of dreams; father of psychoanalysis
Max Werthimer
Gestalt (both observable and unobservable psychology)
Retroactive interference
Current info interferes with remembering past info
Proactive interference
Information previously learned interferes with remembering current info
Implicit memory
Information we are not consciously aware of; split into two categories: procedural and emotional. Procedural=skills, habits, and actions. Emotional= memory of how emotional states
Fundamental principles of Cognitive psychology
1. Human beings are information processors and that mental processes guide behavior.
2. Mind can be studied scientifically by developing theories and using a number of scientific research methods.
3. Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors.
Stereotype
People who have fixed ideas about others.
Perception
Cognitive processes that interprets and organizes information from the sensed to produce some meaningful experience of the world.
Schemas
Mental representation of knowledge.
Bartlett's Study
He found that people had problems with remembering stories from another culture and they reconstructed the story according to their culture. Also, he demonstrated the memory that people remember in terms of meaning and what makes sense to them which leads to memory distortions.
Schema theory
Cognitive theory about information processing suggests what we already know will influence the outcome of the information processing. It is also defined as "network of knowledge, believes & expectation."
Three stages of memory processing
1. Encoding- transferring sensory information into a meaning memory
2. Storage- creating biological trace of the encoded information into the memory which is either consolidated or lost.
3. Retrieval- using the distorted information.
Short term memory (STM)
Very small part of information attended will continue into the STM, which has limited capacity to round seven items from 6 to 12 seconds.
Long term memory (LTM)
It is conceptualized as a vast store house of information with indefinite duration and of potentially unlimited capacity. The material is not an exact replica of events or facts but rather stored as outline.
Bradley & Hitch (1974)
Suggested the working memory model, based on multi-store model. However, they challenged the view that STM is a single store. Working memory is a model of STM and it includes several components, whereas the multi store model of memory only includes one.
Episodic buffer
the role of the episodic buffer is to act as a temporary and passive display store until the information is needed--much like a television screen. The processing of information takes place in other parts of the system.
Baddley & Hitch 1974
performed an experiment in which they asked participants to read a prose and understand it, while at the same time remembering sequences of numbers. They found that in dual task experiments there was a clear and systematic increase in reasoning time if people had to undertake a memory dependent task at the same time. The prediction of the working memory model is that there will be impairment in concurrent tasks.
Holmes 2008
studied the association between visuospatial sketchpad capacity and childrens mathematics attainment in relation to age. Based on the sample of children in age groups 7-8 and 9-10 years, they studied age related differences in the relationship between the visual and spatial memory subcomponents of the visuospatial sketchpad and a range of mathematical skills. They found that in older children, mathematical performance could be significantly predicted by performance on the visual patterns test.
Eysenk 1988
there is reasonable evidence that individual differences in intelligence may depend partly on differences in working memory capacity.
Explicit Memory
Consists of fact based information that can be retrieved. It is divided into two sections 1: Semantic memory(general knowledge) 2: Episodic memory(memory from personal experiences and events.)
Implicit Memory
contains memory that we are not consciously aware of.
Procedural memory
nonconscious memory such as skills or habits. Emotional memory (not yet well understood)
Sigmund Freud
was convinced that forgetting was caused by repression. According to Freud, people who experience intense emotional and anxiety provoking events may use defence mechanism, such as repression, to protect their conscious self from knowing things that they cannot cope with. They send the dangerous memories to the unconscious, which means that they will deny it ever happened. However, the memory will continue to haunt them in symbolic form sin their dreams until a therapist is able to retrieve the memory using specific techniques.
Three components of emotions
Physiological changes, the persons own subjective feelings of an emotion, and associated behavior such as smiling or running away
Lazarus & Folkman (1984)
People use different strategies in stressful situations. One of them is called problem focused coping which aimed to change the problematic situation that causes emotion stress. They call the other emotion focused coping where the purpose is to handle the emotions rather than changing the problematic situation.
Flashbulb memory
Suggested by Brown and Kulik (1977). It is special kind of emotional memory which refers to vivid and detailed memories of highly emotional events that appear to be recorded in a brain as though with the help of a cameras flash.
Breckler (1994)
He found that peoples current attitudes towards blood donation impacted their memories by how they felt when they donated blood in the past.
(Theory)
People compare themselves to others. The is based on the cognitive theory related to social, psychology suggested by Leon Festinger.
Social Comparison theory
based on the idea that people learn about and assess themselves by comparison with others. According to this theory, people are happy if they have more than those they normally compare themselves to.
Second social comparison theory
People link happiness to reaching certain goals but they tend to set higher goals once they achieve the first ones. Therefore, they never end up feelings happy.
Myers and Dieners 1995
They have shown that there is discrepancy between wealth and happiness. They found that although the buying power of the average american had tripled since 1950s, the proportion of Americans who described themselves as very happy remained stable at about one third. This indicated that there is no direct link to wealth and happiness.
Johnson & Kruger 2006
Found that although many believed there is a relationship between happiness and money, it is rather satisfaction with ones salary that brings happiness.
Chunking
grouping bits of information into larger units to help them remember.
BLOA- Principle 1
Behavior is physiologically based
BLOA- Principle 2
Animal research can provide insight into human behaviour
BLOA- Principle 3
Human behaviour is, to some extent, geneticaly based
CLOA- Principle 1
Human beings are information processors and mental processes guide behaviour
CLOA- Principle 2
The mind can be studued scientifically
CLOA- Principle 3
Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors
SCLOA- Principle 1
Human beings are social animals with a basic need to belong
SCLOA- Principle 2
Culture influences human behaviour
SCLOA- Principle 3
Humans have a social self which reflects their group membership
BLOA- Principle1: study
Newcomer et al. The role of the stress hormone cortisol on verbal declarative memory
BLOA- Principle 2: study
Rosenweig and Bennet et al. The role of environmental factors on brain plasticity using rats as participants
BLOA- Principle 3: study
Bouchard et al. The minnesota longitudinal twin study: the relative role of genes in IQ
CLOA- Principle 1: study
Schema theory: Mental representations of knowledge stored in categories in memory. Schemas influence expectations about what will happen in a specific situation
CLOA-Principle 2: study
Loftus and Palmer. To test reconstructive memory in relation to eyewitness testimony
CLOA- Principle 3: study
Bartlett. suggested that memory is guided by schemas and that culture can influence schemas
SCLOA- Principle 1: study
Howarth. Focus-group interviews with adolescent girls in Brixton. She found that they had a possitive view of being from Brixton which contrasted the views of those living outside Brixton
SCLOA- Principle 2: study
Berry. Investigated how conformity may be related to culture. He used a modicifation of the Asch experiment
SCLOA- Principle 3: study
Social Identity Theory by Tajfel and Turner. Group based social identities are based into categorization into ingroups and outgroups
Localization of brain function
The case study of H.M. Milner first reported the effects of removing the hippocampus and surrounding areas on memory
The effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour 1
Fisher. Dopamine. Being in love has similarities with being addicted
The effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour 2
Shinoe. Acetylcholine. Linked to synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. It plays an important role in learning and short-term memory
The functions of hormones on human behaviour 1
Newcomer et al. Cortisol and memory. The role of the stress hormone cortisol on verbal declarative memory
The functions of hormones on human behaviour 2
Baumgartner. Oxytosin and trust. The role of oxytosin after breaches of trust in a trust game
The effect of the environment on physiological processes 1
Rosenweig and Bennet et al. The role of environmental factors on brain plasticity using rats as participants which were either placed in an enriched or an impoverish environment
The effect of the environment on physiological processes 2
Bremner et al. Prolonged stress reduces the volume of the hipocampus
Interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour
Vestergaard-poulson et al. Extensive practice of meditation leads to a change in brain structure
Brain-imaging technologies in investigating the relationship between biologica factors and behaviour
Harris and Fiske. fMRI scan. Students responses after being presented with pictures of extreme outgroups. No activity in the prefrontal cortex
Brain-imaging technologies in investigating the relationship between biologica factors and behaviour
Ashtari et al. MRI scan. Early marijuana use can affect brain developement
Evolutionary explanation of behaviour
Fessler et al. disgust will be high with regard to food in women in the first trimester of pregnancy
Ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behaviour
care should be taken about making definite conclusions
genetic reasearch can be misused
genetic research could result in stigmatization and discrimination
Caspi et al. the results of personal screening could cause personal distress
anonymity and confidentiality
informed consent
the right to withdraw
Evaluate Schema theory
proven useful in explaining perception, memory and reasoning
can explain reconstructive memory, stereotyping, gender identity and cultural differences
Cohen argued that the schema concept is to vague to be useful
schema theory focuses on inaccuracy of memory when most of the time people remember accurately
evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process 1
Multi-store model. atkinson and shiffrin
supported by indivituals with amnesia, e.g. H.M and Clive Wearing
the model allowed humans to be seen as information processors
very simplistic
research into the encoding of LTM has been disproved
memory is more complex
not enough focus on interaction between the stores
rehearsal is not enough to explain the transfer of information to LTM
evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process 2
Working memory model. baddeley and hitch
useful in understanding problems in reading and maths skills
broadly accepted and considered important in understanding memory and cognitive processes
focuses on integrating information
too much emphasis on structure rather than processing
what is the role of the central executive
compare the two models of memory
provide possible architecture of the memory system
STM in a temporary storage with limited capacity and duration
contrast the two models of memory
MSM focuses on entire memory system
WMM focuses primarily on STM
MSM simplistic and doesnt focus on interaction between stores
WMM focuses on possible interactions between stores
explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process
scoville and milner. Damage to the hippocampus and amnesia
CLOA Principle 1
Mental processes can be studied scientifically
Cognition such as memory, perceptions and emotions can be studied using technology and following a standardized procedure
Cognitions are abstract and unobservable notions and the fact that they can be tested and studied scientifically is important because it makes these notions more concrete and helps with theory building
Study of cognition becomes more objective because we rely less on introspection for data collection
Adds a biological element to cognitive processes making comparison between BLOA and SCLOA easier
Eg. IA topics or Loftus Leading Verb & Car Speeds
CLOA Principle 2
Human beings are information processers and mental representations guide behavior
- There are cognitive mediators between what happens in the environment (input) and what is delivered as output (behavior)
- Shows that behavior is not mechanical but is the product of the individual experience and is based on our stored knowledge
- Explains and predicts behavior based on personal and cultural differences
- States that input enters the mind via our senses, is processed in our mind and exits as behavior
-Bottom up-->Top Down Processing-->affects behavior
Eg. Bartlett
CLOA Principle 3
Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors
- Factors such as education/religion/ political values may influence the way we think and act
- Takes physical and mental environment into consideration and not just biological- appreciates the complexity of human behavior
- Accounts for social context and interpersonal relationships
- Allows for cultural differences
Eg. Cole and Scribner or Bartlett
Schema Theory
Schema theory states that the way we process information, think and act is determined to a significant extent by previous knowledge and memories which are organized as schemas.
It also states that memories are stored into different sub-categories based on our past experiences
Eg. Bartlett, Loftus and Palmer
Schema
Schema's are cognitive structure that provide a framework for organizing information about the world, events, peoples and actions
- Scripts= Schemas regarding a sequence of events
Eg. Going to a restaurant
- Self Schemas= Organize information about ourselves
Eg. What are my strengths and weaknesses
- Social Schemas= Organize information about groups of people
Eg. Women/ Accountants
Schema Functions
1. Organize information in memory
2. Can be activated to increase information processing efficiency
3. Enable the generation of expectations about people, objects or events (future predictions)
4. Regulate behavior
5. Represent general behavior rather than definitions
6. Are active recognition devices
Schema Distortions
1. When settings are unfamiliar
2. When the wrong schemas become evaluated
Schema Evaluation (Positives)
- Useful for understanding how people categorize information, interpret stories and make inferences
- Has contributed to the study and understanding of memory and memory distortions as well as the workings and creations of stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination (Humans are active information processors and when a schema is not yet formed 'a best guess' may lead to distortions)
- Shows that memory is malleable
- Supported by huge amount of empirical studies
- Helps us understand that our brain can store a huge amount of information just because it is so well organized
Schema Evaluation (Negitives)
- Theory is not clear on how they are gained in the first place and how they influence cognitive processes (Memory/ Perception and Emotion)
- Too vague and hypothetical to be useful it can be only inferred from behavioral evidence
- They can not be observed and even the use of fMRI simply shows brain activity and does not clarify what exactly the individual is processing at the time
Memory
...
Atkinson and Shiffron Model
A&S formalized the basis for the distinction between different memories corresponding to different time intervals. It states that there are 3 types of memory stores.
-Sensory Store is where information arriving from the environment is first placed. It contains information captured by the sense organs. It is transient, that is, information will decay after a few tenths of a second to a few seconds. The small portion of information that is attended to will be transferred to short term store.
-Short Term Store can be roughly identified with consciousness and the information is readily available. It can be used as the foundation for making decisions. All else being equal, information will decay after 20 seconds and this can be prevented through rehearsal (the repeating of some information over and over again). Elaboration is a form of processing whereby information from STS is transferred to LTS
-Long Term Store is a large repository of information that we maintain of all information that is generally available to us. Information enters via various kinds of elaborative processes from STS. It is unlimited in size. Information acquired from LTS can be placed back into STS where it can be manipulated and used to carry out the task at hand.
Evaluation of Atkinson & Shiffrin
Explains the distinction between memory stores more than how and why things are remembered. Does not account for distinction between skills memory, facts memory...
Sparked further research
Craik and Lockhardt
They proposed another processing model known as the Levels of Processing Theory. It states that deep, meaningful kinds of processing leads to more permanent retention than shallow, sensory kinds of retention.
It is not considered as a rival of A&S model but focusses on rehearsal instead.
Proposed that memory was enhanced by the depth of processing than by how long information was rehearsed.
Deep processing involves coding the stimulus more abstractly in terms of its meaning whereas coding the stimulus in terms of its physical characteristics is more shallow processing.
So visual and acoustic coding are shallow but semantic coding is deep.
They also came up with two kinds of rehearsal. Maintenance rehearsal refers to simply repeating the material and is considered to be shallow while elaborative rehearsal refers to a more meaningful analysis of the material.
It is a move forward in the understanding of rehearsal from what A&S saw simply as being shallow maintenance rehearsal into what could be considered as elaborate deep processing rehearsal.
Proposed that memory occurred on a range from shallow to deep with no limit on the number of different levels.
Evaluation of Craik and Lockhardt
Deeper levels of processing does lead to better recall however, one can argue as to whether it is the depth of processing or the amount of processing effort that leads to a better recall.
Subjects tend to spend more time processing the deeper, more difficult task.
Does not really explain why deeper levels of processing is more effective. It describes rather than explains what is happening.
It addresses the encoding stage of memory but does not address retrieval.
MRI
MRI scans construct 3D models of brain structures which means that they can be used to study brain size and shape with reference to cognitive proceses and behavior this has been of particular importance since it has enabled scientists to link a change in these variables to the progress of Alzheimer's disease
Education
-A social factor in that it puts an individual in a social context with several people and a cultural one in that the way educating is conducted differs from place to place.
- Since education regards learning and learning involves memory through schemas it seems likely that education as a socio-cultural factor may affect the cognitive affect of memory
Cognition (in relation in education)
'Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors' is one of the principles that define the cognitive level of analysis and social and cultural factors are those that affect our ways of thinking and behaving without acting immediately upon the physiology of our bodies (Education/beliefs/religion/etc.)
It appreciates the variety of factors that lead up to the complexity of human behavior instead of calling it all biology
It allows for cultural differences
Reconstructive Memory
Memories are constructed by sensations, perceptions and stimuli we pay attention to through a process of encoding, storage and retrival
- The fact that different people remember the same events differently shows that the process of remembering is both relitive and personalized as well as subject to reconstructive forces
- Everytime we retrive a memory there is a change in the memory. We may remove any information that doesn't seem to make sence in the light of new information we see or we may add new information that is suggested to us by others.
Internally Generated Inferences
Refers to deductions which one tends to make to fill in the gaps in memory.
Inferences can be based on schemas which can be defined as mental representations of a class of people, objects, events or situations.
Externally Provided Suggestions
Post event reconstruction can occur as a result of information suggested to us by others.
Reliability of Reconstructive Memory
Reliability of reconstructive memory can be questioned .
Great importance for eye-witness testimony, forced confessions, childhood traumas...
Most experiments performed for this kind of memory are performed in laboratories otherwise it would be unethical. This lowers their ecological validity because stress levels cannot be successfully replicated.
fMRI
Measures oxygen levels in different areas of the brain which means it is possible to study the biological connection to decision making in terms of brain areas requiring more oxygen at different points in time. This not only highlights the biological correlates of behavior but also helps us make predictions of future events
Emotions
An emotion is a complex multicomponent episode that creates a readiness to act or a natural instinctive state of mind. Emotions consist of physiological events, subjective cognitive interpretations of those events and associated behavior. Emotions are different that moods because they have a cause. Typically an emotion begins with a cognitive appraisal, a person's assessment of his current circumstances.
Lazurus's theory of Appraisal
The theory puts cognition as an integral part of emotions.
It states that we experience emotions when we appraise events as beneficial or harmful
Primary Appraisal- refers to whether a situation is personally relevant (appraisal of threat)
Secondary Appraisal- refers to what options are available in terms of coping with the situation (one's own resources for dealing with the threat/stress)
Le Doux
LeDoux says that the biological (physical) and cognitive
(emotional) factors of a memory come from two distinct areas of the brain. The memories of the feeling (heartbeat, sweating) come from the amygdala and is true emotional memory.
Le Doux vs. Lazarus
Lazarus claims that because our emotional state follows our cognitive evaluation of a situation, cognition precedes biology when it comes to emotions. According to him, we feel angry when the situation is relevant and we think someone is responsible for it.

LeDoux, on the other hand, states that even if emotion is based on cognitive processing, it is not proven that all such processing is conscious. In fact, the evaluation of a situation takes place prior to conscious awareness and only the results of the evaluation (emotions) are made conscious (emotions). Because of this LeDoux argues that physiological events precede cognitive ones when it comes to primitive emotions (fear, anger, joy...)

Both Lazarus and LeDoux claim that emotions and memory are in different parts of the brain but are closely related. However, Lazarus says that for any biological process to start, there has to be some form of cognition while LeDoux says that the biological process happens first because of human instincts and the evolutionary process.
Flashbulb Memory
It is one of the ways in which emotions may affect memory. It is a special kind of memory which refers to vivid and detailed memories of highly emotional events that appear to be recorded in the brain as though with the help of a camera's flash.
Could refer to the circumstances in which one first learned of a very surprising and consequential (emotionally charging) event.
Evaluation of Flashbulb Memory
-The theory justifies people having vivid pictures of events that were unexpected and involved a sudden surge of emotion
-The theory was a hypothesis but was confirmed by modern neuroscience whereby highly emotional events (death of a relative) are better remembered than less emotional events (losing a book). This is because of the critical role of the amygdala

-The negative aspect of this theory could be that these vivid pictures could be flawed or made up due to rehearsal and repetition
-Even the original emotion itself could influence what is added or removed or what created the vivid picture
-There is a huge gap between encoding and retrieval. It is questionable whether it is accurate or not because the theory does not account for rehearsal.
-Could simply be a narrative convention whereby schemas are governed by a story-telling schema
Cognitive Principle
Human beings are information processors and manipulate stimuli received from the environment. These mental processes guide behaviour.
Cognitive Principle
The mind can be studied scientifically by developing theories and using a number of scientific research methods.
Cognitive Principle
Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors.
Cognitive processes
memory, language, thinking, attention and perception
Definition of Cognition (Ulric Neisser,1967)
"all the processes by which the senosory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used".
Cognitive Psychology
The study of the structure and functions of the mind
Research Methods used in Cognitive Psychology
1. Laboratory Experiment
2. Case studies of brain damaged patients
3. Neuro-imaging technologies (e.g. CAT and fMRI)
Computer analogy
The use of the computer as a tool for thinking about the human mind. Bottom-up, Top-Down Processing
Schema Theory
Theory that information is stored in long-term memory in networks of connected facts and concepts that provide a structure for making sense of new information.
Cognitive Schemas
Framework or scaffolding of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning particular topics or aspects of the world that develop as a result of past experience.
Bartlett (1932)
Constructive Memory; studying memory for meaningful material; read a story and retell it several times, while examining progressive changes in what is remembered about the story
Brewer & Treyens (1981)
Study to show how participant's schema of an office influenced what they remembered. Each participant was taken into an office and left alone for 35 seconds while the experimenter 'popped out' to do something. Then the participant was taken to another room and asked to write down as many items that they could remember from the office as possible.
Anderson & Pichert (1978)
Aim- To determine the influence of schema processing on both encoding and retrieval.
Method- Participants heard a story which contained information about a house. Half of the participants were asked to adopt a home-buyer schema when hearing the story, and the other half, a typical burglar schema. A distracting task was performed for 12 minutes before testing recall. After a further 5 minute delay, half the participants were then given the alternative schema (i.e. home-buyers were given burglar schemas and vice versa), and the other half were asked to retain their original schema, and recall was retested.
Results- Points directly linking to alternative schemas increased by 10%, whilst those relating to previous schemas declined.
Memory Processes
1. Encoding
2. Storage
3. Retrieval
Encoding
The process of transforming sensory information into a meaningful memory. [PUT IN MEMORY]
Storage
The process of creating a biological trace of the encoded information in memory, which is then either consolidated or lost. [MAINTAIN IN MEMORY]
Retrieval
The process of recovering information stored in memory. [RECOVER FROM MEMORY]
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)
Said that memory consists of 3 types of memory stores that differ in multiple respects: duration (how long information can be stored), capacity (how much information can be stored), and coding (in what form info can be stored). Created the Multi-Store Model of Memory. Sensory store, short term store, and long term store!
Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)
Used free recall (recalling the to-be remembered items in any order) of a list of 20 items combined with an interference task to show the primacy-recency effect.
Case studies of brain damaged patients.
1) H.M.
2) Clive Wearing
Cole & Scribner (1974)
Different culture, different memory strategies. Kpelle people of Liberia could not recall objects in a list as easily as American children, but when it was presented as a story they recalled objects.
Loftus & Palmer (1974)
Participants were asked to estimate the speed of the car when it smashed, collided, contacted, hit the other car-- stronger adjectives equaled faster speed
Technology used in investigating cognitive process.
1) PET
2) fMRI
PET
A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
fMRI
A form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain.
Theories of emotion (cognitive and biological factors).
1) LeDoux's Emotional Brain (short vs long route) Biological
2) Appraisal Theory (Speisman)
LeDoux's Emotional Brain Two-Route Emotional Pathway
Although his studies have not been replicated, this man said that the short route of emotion goes from the thalamus directly to the amygdala, allowing for quick emotional response to stimuli. And the slower route goes from the thalumus to sensory cortex and Hippocampus which allows emotion a chance to be more thoroughly thought throw before expressed.
Appraisal Theory
life event + appraisal = emotions --> action
Speisman
A study done to explore appraisal theory by showing a female genital mutilation surgery film to college students. One was shown without music while the others were shown with various soundtracks. Depending on the music, the students had differing viewpoints on the surgery. When shown with traumatic music, the film was seen as stressful and horrific. When shown with a denial soundtrack, the film was seen as hopeful because the surgery would lead to the ultimate happiness of the patient enduring.
interactionist approach
use by psychologist; doesn't rely soly on either nature (biological) or nurture (environment), adopts a more holistic approach
reductionist approach
breaks down complex human behavior into its smallest parts (ex. focusing on the role of a gene, or neurotransmitter)
neurons
nerve cells that send electrochemical messages to the brain so that people can respond to stimuli
neurotransmission
the method by which the electrochemical messages are sent
neurotransmitters
the body's natural chemical messengers which transmit information from one neuron to another
reuptake
when the neurotransmitters are either broken down or reabsorbed by the terminal buttons
acetylcholine
influences muscle contraction, and plays a role in the development of memory in the hippocampus
dopamine
influences voluntary movement, learning, and feelings of pleasure
norepinephrine
influences arousal, alertness, and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
serotonin
influences sleep, arousal levels, and emotion
Otto Loewi
discovered the role of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
longitudinal case study
takes place over a long period of time
Broca's Area
area of the brain that deals with understanding and making grammatically complex sentences
Wernicke's Area
area of the brain that is crucial for language comprehension
electroencephalogram (EEG)
registers patterns of voltage change in the brain; cannot reveal what is happening in deeper brain regions; cannot show actual functioning of the brain
positron emission topography (PET)
monitors glucose metabolism in the brain; produces colored maps of brain activity
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
provides three-dimensional pictures of the brain structures; shows brain activity and indicates which areas are active when engaged in a behavior
brain plasticity
the brain's ability to rearrange the connections between its neurons
dendritic branching
occurs every time a person learns something new; the neurons connect to create a new trace in the brain
mirror neurons
special neurons that play a role in the ability to learn from another person
adrenaline
(adrenal glands) fight or flight response, arousal
cortisol
(adrenal glands) arousal, stress hormone, memory
melatonin
(pineal gland) regulation of sleep
oxytocin
(pituitary gland & hypothalamus) mother-child attachment
testosterone/estrogen
(gonads) development, emotion
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
a subcategory of depression characterized by sleepiness and lethargy; caused by high levels of melatonin & reduced levels of sunlight
behavioral genetics
how both genetics and the environment contribute to individual variations in human behavior
diathesis-stress model
depression is the result of the interaction of genetic vulnerability and a traumatic environmental stimuli in early childhood
correlational studies
research method used to establish degree of relationship between 2 events or varibles
family studies
method studying blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait
meta-analysis
statistical synthesis of the data from a set of comparable studies of a problem that yields a quantitative summary of the pooled results
less effort hypothesis
individuals with higher IQs use less energy to think than those with lower IQs
theory of natural selection
the members of a species who have characteristics which are better suited to the environment are more likely to breed, and pass on the traits
adaptation
when a species develops characteristics that make it more competitive in its environment
Attachment
the enduring emotional ties children form with their primary caregivers; it includes a desire for proximity to an attached figure, a sense of security derived from the person's presence and feelings of distress when the person is absent.
Four patterns of infant attachment:
Secure (seek comfort from attachment figure),
Avoidant (shut off their needs for attachment),
Ambivalent (have difficulty being soothed), and
Disorganised (behave in contradictory ways that reflect their difficulty predicting or understanding the way their attachment figures will behave).
Socialisation
the process by which children learn the rules, beliefs, values, skills, attitudes and behaviour patterns of their society.
Four parenting styles
Authoritarian parents (place high value on obedience and respect for authority),
Permissive parents (impose minimal controls on their children),
Authoritative parents (enforce standards but explain their views and encourage verbal give-and-take),
Uninvolved parents (consistently place their own needs above the needs of their child).
Gender roles
roles assigned by society to people of each gender.
trust versus mistrust
Erikson's first psychosocial crisis. Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, etc.) are met.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
Erikson's second crisis of psychosocial development. Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their own actions and bodies.
initiative versus guilt
Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them
industry versus inferiority
Erikson's fourth psychosocial development crisis, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.
identity versus identity confusion
Erikson's fifth psychosocial crisis, in which the major developmental task of adolescence is developing a stable ego identity, or sense of who one is. Failure results in developing a negative identity or in role confusion.
sensorimotor
Piaget's theory (stage) 0-2 years. Child interacts with environment by reflex response. Reflexes are replaced by purposeful movement. Child is self centered & recognizes people, both familiar and not familiar.
preoperational
2-7 years symbolic thoughts, language develops, object permanence firmly established
concrete operational
Piaget's stage for children aged 7-11 that is characterized by increased logical thougt and organization
formal operational
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, from age 11 or 12 and beyond, when the individual begins to think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical events.
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
Focuses on how culture--the values and beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group--is transmitted to the next generation. According to Vygotsky, social interaction--in particular, cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society-- is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture.
object permanence
recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age
egocentricism
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
equilibration
Piaget's term for the tendency to seek a stable balance among cognitive elements; achieved through a balance between assimilation and accommodation
morality of cooperation
stage of development wherein children realize that people make rules and people can change them.
morality of constraint
First stage of moral development, acc to Piaget. Rules are unchangeable givens, what adult says: goes, consequence is what determines good/bad action not motive behind action.
schemas
Concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information.
abstractions
the act of considering something as a general quality or characteristic, apart from concrete realities, specific objects, or actual instances
operations
mental actions a child uses to manipulate, transform, and then return an object to its original state
gender identity
Sexual identify; a person knowing that their sex is permanent and cannot be changed.
assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
accommodation
in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality
cognitive processing
what your brain does after the information comes in
through the senses
compromise functions
single behavior or pattern of thought and action that reflects compromise among multiple forces
Attachment
the enduring emotional ties children form with their primary caregivers; it includes a desire for proximity to an attached figure, a sense of security derived from the person's presence and feelings of distress when the person is absent.
Four patterns of infant attachment:
Secure (seek comfort from attachment figure),
Avoidant (shut off their needs for attachment),
Ambivalent (have difficulty being soothed), and
Disorganised (behave in contradictory ways that reflect their difficulty predicting or understanding the way their attachment figures will behave).
Socialisation
the process by which children learn the rules, beliefs, values, skills, attitudes and behaviour patterns of their society.
Four parenting styles
Authoritarian parents (place high value on obedience and respect for authority),
Permissive parents (impose minimal controls on their children),
Authoritative parents (enforce standards but explain their views and encourage verbal give-and-take),
Uninvolved parents (consistently place their own needs above the needs of their child).
Gender roles
roles assigned by society to people of each gender.
trust versus mistrust
Erikson's first psychosocial crisis. Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, etc.) are met.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
Erikson's second crisis of psychosocial development. Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their own actions and bodies.
initiative versus guilt
Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them
industry versus inferiority
Erikson's fourth psychosocial development crisis, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.
identity versus identity confusion
Erikson's fifth psychosocial crisis, in which the major developmental task of adolescence is developing a stable ego identity, or sense of who one is. Failure results in developing a negative identity or in role confusion.
sensorimotor
Piaget's theory (stage) 0-2 years. Child interacts with environment by reflex response. Reflexes are replaced by purposeful movement. Child is self centered & recognizes people, both familiar and not familiar.
preoperational
2-7 years symbolic thoughts, language develops, object permanence firmly established
concrete operational
Piaget's stage for children aged 7-11 that is characterized by increased logical thougt and organization
formal operational
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, from age 11 or 12 and beyond, when the individual begins to think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical events.
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
Focuses on how culture--the values and beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group--is transmitted to the next generation. According to Vygotsky, social interaction--in particular, cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society-- is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture.
object permanence
recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age
egocentricism
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
equilibration
Piaget's term for the tendency to seek a stable balance among cognitive elements; achieved through a balance between assimilation and accommodation
schemas
Concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information.
abstractions
the act of considering something as a general quality or characteristic, apart from concrete realities, specific objects, or actual instances
operations
mental actions a child uses to manipulate, transform, and then return an object to its original state
gender identity
Sexual identify; a person knowing that their sex is permanent and cannot be changed.
assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
accommodation
in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality
cognitive processing
what your brain does after the information comes in
through the senses
compromise functions
single behavior or pattern of thought and action that reflects compromise among multiple forces
Cohorts
A group of persons about the same age who are therefore likely to share similar experiences
Longitudinal Design
A research design in which data are gathered about the same group of people as they grow older over
Microgenetic Design
A research design method in which individual development is studied over a relatively short period of time
Discuss one theory of cognitive development.
PIAGET: Theory of cognitive development (CLOA)
- theory was based off of observations of his own children and open-ended interviews.
- Piaget believes there are qualitative differences in the way of thinking of adults and children
- Key concept of his theory: schema. Each child builds their own mental representation of the world used to interpret and interact with objects, people and events. The child is an active scientist
- Children's cognitive development progresses through stages over time (stage theory)
- Stages of cognitive development:
a) Sensorimotor stage (ages 0-2 yrs): baby goes from reflexive instinctual action to constructing knowledge via coordination of sensory experiences and physical actions
b) Preoperational (2-7 yrs): Child begins showing egocentrism (difficulty seeing things from other peoples perspectives) and lack of conservation (cannot see that things remain constant in spite of change in visible appearance). Not able to use formal logic.
c) Concrete operational (7-11 yrs): Can carry out mental operations but needs to see the objects being concretely manipulated
d) Formal operational (11-15 yrs): ability to use abstract reasoning and logic, can deal with hypothetical problems and mentally manipulate things, can use deductive reasoning.
- Strengths of Piaget's theory:
~Piaget has contributed substantially to the psychological study of cognitive development
~ Piaget's work has had major influence on education and has generated a lot of research over time
~ Piaget showed that children qualitatively think differently than adults
- Weakness of Piaget's theory:
~ Piaget focused mainly on cognitive development mainly as a process located in an individual child instead of how contextual factors contribute to cognitive growth
~ Researchers, including Vygotsky, have questioned the timing of Piaget's stages
~ His method has been criticized because of the small and non representative sample, lack of scientific rigour and asking questions that are too complex for children
Discuss how social variables may affect cognitive development.
Socioeconomic Status (SES):
- Findings from neuroscientists show that children growing up in very poor families experience high levels of stress and this stress could impair brain development and general cognitive functioning.
- Bhoomika et al. (2008) studied the effect of malnutrition on cognitive performance in a sample of 20 Indian children in two age groups: 5-7 years old and 8-10 years old. The data was compared to a control group. Malnourished kids in both age groups scored lower on tests on attention, working memory and visuospatial tests. Older children showed less cognitive impairment suggesting that malnutrition may result in delayed cognitive development during childhood, but it isn't permanent.
Discuss how environmental variables may affect cognitive development.
Environmental Stimulation and Parental Nurturance:
- Animal research suggests that there is a specific relationship between early experience and brain development.
- Farah et al. (2008): investigated the relationship between environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on cognitive development. This was a longitudinal design with 110 African-American middle-school children. Children were recruited at birth and evaluated at age four and eight years in the home. Interviews and observational checklists were used to measure environmental stimulation (e.g. encouragement to learn) and parental nurturance (e.g. warmth and affection). The researchers performed cognitive tests on language and memory in the lab. The results showed a positive correlation between environmental stimulation and language development, as well as between parental nurturance and long-term memory performance. The sample in this study was criticized as being non-representative as all the children were from low economic statuses.
Discuss potential effects of deprivation or trauma in childhood on later development.
Potential effects of Trauma: PTSD
- PTSD could potentially interfere with normal development and if untreated can cause emotional numbness, avoidant behavior or hyper-vigilance.
- Carion et al. (2009): performed fMRI scans and found that children suffering from PTSD after experiencing extreme stressors, such as abuse, performed worse on a simple verbal memory test and showed less hippocampal activity compared to a control group. Those who performed worst on the test typically had difficulties remembering the trauma, felt cut off from others and showed lack of emotion,

Potential effects of Deprivation: Cognitive impairment & Attachment Disorder
- The English and Romanian Adoptees Study: longitudinal study of 324 Romanian adoptees that entered the UK. The researchers investigated potential long-term effects of severe deprivation in childhood, as all adoptees were found in very deprived Romanian institutions. Cognitive impairment was found in 15.4% of the Romanians and only 2.3% in the UK adoptees. There was a persistent cognitive deficit at age six in the children who remained longest in the deprived Romanian institutions before being adopted. These children also had a much smaller head circumference at the time they entered the UK and this could also be observed at age six. This could suggest neural damage. As for attachment disorder, data was collected through semi-structured interviews with parents to assess the child's behavior towards the parents and other adults. There was a correlation found between the amount of time spent in the deprived institution and percentage of children who displayed attachment disorder. The majority of the children, however, did not exhibit cognitive impairment and disinhibited attachment, and those who did suffer showed a great deal of recovery over time.
Define resilience.
-Rutter (1990) defined resilience as maintaining adaptive functioning in spite of serious risk factors.
- Wyman et al. (2000) defined resilience as a child's achievement of positive developmental outcomes and avoidance of maladaptive outcomes under adverse conditions
- Wright and Masten (2006) claimed that resilience should not be studied as an individual trait but rather in the context of adversity and risk in relation to multiple contextual factors that interact with individual factors.
Discuss strategies to build resilience.
The Triple P- Positive Parenting Program
- based on social learning theories in which its goal is to target behavioral, emotional and developmental problems in children up to 16 years of age.
- Sanders et al. (2002): found the program effective in reducing children's disruptive behavior, as a number of randomized and controlled trials show success.
- Love et al. (2005) supported these results. Researchers found that parents who participated in training programs were more supportive, better in stimulating language development and used less corporal punishment.

The Big Brother/Big Sister Mentoring Programs
- Resilience-based mentoring program for high-risk children and adolescents in the USA.
- Tierney et al. (1985) studied the impact of mentoring on 959 high-risk children aged 10-16 from low-income families. Half were assigned a mentor and half were the control. The results showed a positive outcome if the mentoring adult provided a caring relationship and had positive expectations. The program did not focus on any specific behavior problem but was investigating whether social support from an adult could promote resilience.
Examine psychological research into adolescence.
The Theory of Psychosocial Development: (Erikson, 1968)
- states that the individual develops through a series of stages from birth to death. There are 8 stages of social development. In each stage there exists a conflict/battle that must be internally fought.
- The 5th stage deals with adolescence, as it is the stage of identity crisis marked by rapid growth and hormonal changes (ages 12-18)
~ These body changes can be confusing as the adolescent has to search for a new sense of continuity and question sexuality, future occupation, etc. This is called moratorium (time to experience different possibilities)
~ If the identity crisis is solved successfully, the adolescent will feel confident about his or her own identity and future.
~If the identity crisis is not solved successfully, the adolescent may join a subgroup and develop a negative or socially unacceptable identity.
- Espin et al (1990) supports Erikson's theory. The researchers performed a content analysis of 71 letters from a Latin-American girl, whose parents had been arrested, to her teacher over a period of nine years, between the ages of 13 and 22. Themes of identity appeared in the earlier letters, and increased from the ages of 13 to 18 years, but then declined. This confirms that issues of identity were prominent in this period, as predicted by Erikson.
- Rutter et al. (1976) challenged Erickson's theory. Aim was to investigate the concept of developmental crisis in a representative sample of adolescents. All adolescents on the Isle of Wight aged between 14 and 15 participated in the study. Data was collected with questionnaires and interviews from parents, teachers, and the adolescents. Only a minority (1/5) of the adolescents showed signs of crisis or conflict with parents and this was mostly related to psychiatric problems. This is not in line with predictions of the theory of psychosocial development.
- Evaluation of the theory: the theory is Western biased, the stage theory is based on the assumption that development is universal and sequential