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Chapter 11: Human Body Systems

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________ refers to how a body system functions, and ________ refers to the structure of a body part.
Physiology; anatomy
Form refers to ________, and function refers to ________.
anatomical structure; physiological actions
Organs are made up of a collection of ________ to perform a specific function.
different types of tissues
Tissues are made up of ________ that work together to perform a function.
similar cells
Connective tissue is the most variable of the tissue types. Which one of the following is not categorized as connective tissue?
A) Bone
B) Blood
C) Fat
D) Skin
D) Skin
What is the role of the epithelium?
Helps protect the body from the external environment
Response to a stimulus, such that the effect of the stimulus is counteracted, is called ________ feedback.
negative
Maintaining a steady-state internal environment, despite a changing external environment, is called ________.
homeostasis
How is diabetes linked with homeostasis?
Diabetes results from the body not responding with a negative feedback to the level of glucose in the blood.
True or False? Mechanical digestion occurs only in the stomach; chemical digestion occurs only in the mouth.
True
What is the role of the villi?
To absorb small nutrient molecules from the digestive tract
Most of the absorption of nutrients (besides water) takes place in the ________.
small intestine
The main role of the large intestine is to ________.
absorb water
The main role of the liver is to ________.
produce bile, which helps the process of digestion
Which accessory organ's secretions neutralize stomach acid before it reaches the intestines?
pancreas
What moves the food from your mouth to your stomach when you swallow?
Peristaltic muscle contractions
What are the four stages of food processing, ordered from beginning to end?
Ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
An essential nutrient is specifically a nutrient that your body ________.
cannot make by itself
Scurvy is caused by a lack of which nutrient?
Vitamin C
Which of the following is a type of essential nutrient?
A) Minerals
B) Organic vitamins
C) Essential amino acids
D) All of the above are types of essential nutrients.
D) All of the above are types of essential nutrients.
What causes a stomach ulcer?
a bacterial infection
The term interface can be used to describe the surface across which molecules and ions are exchanged, often diffusing between external and internal environments or between organ systems. What part of the respiratory system forms the interface between the respiratory system and the circulatory system?
Alveoli
What is the role of the epiglottis?
Prevents food from entering the windpipe
The pulmonary circuit specifically circulates blood ________.
from the heart to the lungs
Which are the thinnest blood vessels?
Capillaries
What is the defining characteristic of all arteries?
They only carry blood away from the heart.
What is the correct sequence for the pathway of blood through the heart?
Body → Right atrium → Right ventricle → Lungs → Left atrium → Left ventricle → Body
What is a heart attack?
Arteries that supply the heart with oxygen become blocked
What is the primary function of the sinoatrial node?
Initiates the contraction of the heart
Select the feature which is not directly involved in the clotting process.
A) Platelets
B) Hemoglobin
C) Fibrin
D) All of these are involved in the clotting process.
B) Hemoglobin
Which of the following blood cells fights infections?
A) Red blood cells
B) Platelets
C) White blood cells
D) Hemoglobin
C) White blood cells
What is the main role of red blood cells?
Carry oxygen
Blood types A, B, AB, and O are determined by ________.
carbohydrates on the surface of the red blood cells
A person with carbohydrates A and B on the surface of their red blood cells will have which of the following blood types?
Blood type AB, as both A and B are present
What is the name of the response to an injury in which fluids leak from dilated blood vessels, causing redness and swelling?
Inflammatory response
Which type of white blood cells produces defensive proteins called antibodies?
B cells
Identify the primary role of the lymphatic system.
Produce and store large numbers of white blood cells
How is an adaptive defense initially primed?
Upon exposure to a foreign antigen
Which medication prevents viral infections by priming the immune system against a specific virus?
Vaccine
What is the condition called when your body's immune system overreacts to an otherwise harmless foreign particle?
Allergy
What type of disorder is AIDS?
Immunodeficiency
There are many organs and glands of the endocrine system, but which one is the master controller?
Hypothalamus
What are hormones?
They are chemicals transported in the blood and affect targeted cells throughout the body.
What is the name of the tubes that run from the kidneys to the bladder?
Ureters
What is the purpose of dialysis treatments?
To detoxify dangerous chemicals in the bloodstream
What is the part of the kidney where urine is formed?
the nephron
From production through ejaculation, which is the correct pathway for a sperm cell?
Testis → Epididymis → Vas deferens → Seminal vesicles → Prostate gland → Penis
The release of an egg from an ovary is called ________.
ovulation
Where does the fertilization of the egg occur?
oviduct
When is an unborn child called a fetus?
From the 9th week of pregnancy to birth
Which of the following forms of contraception is removable?
A) A tubal ligation
B) A vasectomy
C) An intrauterine device
D) None of these
C) An intrauterine device
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by a ________.
virus
The spinal cord is part of the ________ nervous system.
central
What would happen if the sensory neurons in your hand could not transmit a signal?
You could move your fingers but you could not feel something touch them.
What carries a signal from one neuron to the next?
Neurotransmitter
Sound is "heard" when sound waves cause structures inside your ears to physically vibrate. A signal is then sent to your brain where it is interpreted as sound. What type of receptor in the ear is responsible for the sense of hearing?
Mechanoreceptors
True or False? Bones are dry and dead, made up of calcium and connective fibers with a few blood vessels running through them.
False
Your thigh bone, the largest bone in your body, is called the ________.
femur
Which is not a major protein found in muscles?
keratin
How do the muscles in your arm extend your arm outward?
Some muscles in your arm relax, and others contract, pulling the arm straight.
Describe the two separate metabolic needs that are met when a full-grown person eats a balanced diet.
To meet caloric and nutritional needs. Although you are no longer growing, you still need to repair and replace damaged cells. Nutrients are also used in all of the chemical reactions that make life possible. You also still need the energy, which you get from the calories in food.
Describe the role of the two antagonistic hormones involved in the feedback loop that maintains the level of glucose in the blood. Which organs are involved, and what type of feedback is this?
When blood glucose levels are low, the pancreas releases glucagon. This causes the liver to release glucose into the blood. When blood glucose levels are high, the pancreas releases insulin. This lowers the blood glucose level. This is a negative feedback loop because one counteracts the effects of the other.
Of the four chambers of the human heart, which has the thickest walls, and why?
Left ventricle. The walls are made of muscle, and the left ventricle has to pump the blood to the entire body, which is farther than all the chambers must pump.
Why can you not catch the same cold twice, but a new cold will make you sick for a week or two?
Your body stores memory cells that can remember the antigens of a cold virus it has fought before. It will then mount an aggressive defense against that specific invader very quickly. If the immune system has not been exposed to a strain of the virus with different antigens, it will have to start from scratch. This may take several days.