94 terms

Ethnic Studies Chapters 1-3

Understanding Race and Ethnicity, Prejudice and Stereotypes, & Discrimination.
STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following allows a minority group to express its own culture and still to participate without prejudice in the larger society?
pluralism
The formation of a subordinate-group-dominant-group relationship emerges through
migration, colonialism, & annexation.
The term 'melting pot' refers to
the formation of a new cultural entity
The conflict perspective emphasizes
the redistribution of resources, social change, & the exploitation of minorities by dominant groups.
Which term is used to describe a group that is set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns?
Ethnic group
'Ethnicity' refers to
Cultural differences
Between the year 2010 and 2050, the proportion of the U.S. population that is Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American will likely
increase from 36% to 54%
Who was the first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard?
W.E.B. Du Bois
Which term is most appropriate in describing the U.S. government's policies toward the Native Americans in the nineteenth century?
genocide
In certain situations, we may respond to stereotypes and act on them, with the result that false definitions become accurate. This is known as the
self-fulfilling prophecy
The development of solidarity among ethnic subgroups is called
panethnicity
The war between the Hutu and Tutsi people of Rwanda would be considered
genocide
of a minority or subordinate group generally marry within their group because
members of the subordinate group have a strong sense of group solidarity that discourages outsiders.
In sociology, minority refers to the
subordinate group.
Stereotypes are applied to
gamblers, lesbians, peoples with disabilities
The process by which an individual gives up his or her own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture is known as
assimilation
Racial beliefs serve all of the following functions for the dominant group EXCEPT
leading to feelings of responsibility among dominant group's members for subordinate group problems.
What does D represent in the equation A + B + C → D?
a resulting ethnocultural-racial group in society
In sociological terms, a majority is the same as a
dominant group.
Which of the following is considered a racial group?
African Americans
Races can be clearly distinguished on the basis of
Skin color
Assimilation tends to take longer under which of the following conditions?
The minority group maintains its own culture.
The concept of race is
socially constructed.
Which of the following is considered an ethnic group?
Blacks, Asians, Norwegian Americans
Opponents see the Afrocentric perspective as
separatism
Which of the following perspectives on race and ethnicity tends to emphasize group tensions between the privileged and the exploited?
conflict
Which of the following is NOT considered an ethnic group?
White Americans
The equation A + B + C = A describes
assimilation
A person or group is described as having particular characteristics and then begins to display the very traits that were said to exist. This is an example of the
self-fulfilling prophecy
The status of being between two cultures at the same time is
marginality
Racial formation refers to the
sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created and manipulated.
The best way to influence reluctant liberals towards less discriminatory behavior is
through equal-opportunity legislation
Which of the following states that interracial interaction between people with equal status in cooperative circumstances will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon previously held stereotypes?
the contact hypothesis
Prejudice is
a negative attitude, not behavior.
Viewing Blacks as superstitious, Whites as uncaring, and Jews as shrewd are examples of
stereotyping
Which of the following types of people would be unlikely to do much to change themselves?
all-weather liberal
The study conducted by Richard La Piere described in the text showed that people
were more willing to accept Chinese in person than they were in theory.
Racial profiling is
based on stereotypes.
Equal opportunity legislation is likely to influence the behavior of
fair-weather liberals, reluctant liberals, timid bigots.
People with authoritarian personalities
fight against conventional values.
The exploitation theory explains the
basis of racial discrimination in the United States.
A Black worker is shown how to perform her factory job by a White male supervisor. According to the contact hypothesis, this situation would be unlikely to reduce prejudice because
the two individuals do not have equal status.
Ethnocentrism is
the tendency to assume that one's culture is superior to all others.
Which of the following is an ethnophaulism?
The personnel manager told the applicant that she had excellent work experience for a woman.
Which of the following is NOT an example of racial profiling?
Henry Louis Gates, Jr., a black Harvard University professor, was arrested in his own home for disorderly conduct.
Sociologists now reject the view that minorities have
low self-esteem, a particular personality, a preference to belong to another group.
Which theory would be most likely to point out that the movement to keep Chinese out of the U.S. became strongest during the late 19th century when Chinese immigrants and Whites fought over dwindling number of jobs?
the authoritarian personality
A Hispanic college student from the southwest U.S. arrives at college to find that her roommate is a Jewish woman from New York. As they get to know one another, they are able to overcome their initial prejudices and grow to appreciate each other's strengths and talents. This is an example of the
contact hypothesis
Exposure to ________ appears to improve racial tolerance.
higher education
Many U.S. citizens blame immigrants for social problems such as unemployment and crime. The immigrant, in this instance becomes the
scapegoat
The use of race-neutral principles to defend the racially unequal status quo is called
color-blind racism
Reluctant liberals are those who
discriminate if there is social pressure to do so.
Studies consistently document that increased formal education is associated with
racial tolerance.
Sociologists use what term to refer to the conscious experience of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities?
affirmative action
The term affirmative action first appeared in an executive order issued by President
Kennedy
Which of the following is an example of institutional discrimination?
employment and housing discrimination
Dominant group members tend to have access to more opportunities, which translates to better quality of life in many ways. Sociologists call this type of inequality
relative deprivation.
Minorities are discriminated against by redlining when
mortgages are denied for houses in minority neighborhoods.
Affirmative action has caused a re-examination of
preferences by law and medical schools for children of alumni, height and weight procedures, "last hired, first fired" policies.
Which of the following is NOT descriptive of institutional discrimination?
It is frequently unintended and unconscious.
The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups which results from the normal operations of a society is known as
institutional discrimination
The practice of locating landfills near minority neighborhoods exemplifies
environmental justice.
Environmental justice refers to
the right to live in communities free from the threat of hazardous waste.
Efforts to recruit members of subordinate groups for jobs, promotions, or educational opportunities are called
affirmative action
Subordinate groups include
deaf people, women, Roman Catholics
The most visible expression of pluralism is called
language
The Bell Curve presented the research of Herrnstein and Murray on the IQ, where they claimed that
welfare should be ended to discourage births among low-IQ poor women, 60 percent of IQ is inheritable, whites are inherently more intelligent than Blacks.
The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural domination over a people by a foreign power for an extended period of time is known as
colonialism.
World systems theory addresses the conflict between
nations who control wealth and nations who provide natural resources and labor.
Members of a minority or subordinate group
have a sense of group solidarity.
African American sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois said in 1900 that the century's major problem would be
the color-line
The term genocide would NOT be used to describe which of the following historical events?
the creation of Pakistan and the geographic separation of Muslims and Hindus
Which of the following is considered an ethnic group
Mexican Americans, Irish Americans, Puerto Ricans
Sociologists consider Jewish Americans an ethnic group because
Their religion is their culture
The tendency to assume that one's culture and way of life are superior to all others is termed
ethnocentrism.
The owner of a car dealership refuses to hire a female applicant not because he feels women are incompetent, but because he fears that customers will be less likely to buy a car from a woman. According to Merton, the owner is being a(an)
reluctant liberal
Federal guidelines bar federal agents from using race and ethnicity as a reason for investigating someone, but cases involving ________ are exempted.
terroism
Which approach explains how racism can stigmatize a group as inferior so that the exclusion of that group can be justified?
exploitation theory
The president of a bank refuses to hire the most qualified candidate for a key management position because he is Jewish. This is an example of
discrimination
A person who harbors prejudice but will not discriminate if it costs money or reduces profits is called a(an)
timid bigot
At one time, many Puerto Ricans were effectively barred from serving in the Chicago Police Department because they failed to meet a height requirement. This was an example of
institutional discrimination
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was given the power to
impose fines on organizations in violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The inability of women to move laterally within a company is known as
the glass wall
What is institutional discrimination?
the denial of opportunities resulting from the normal operations of society
Research shows that differences in intelligence scores between Blacks and Whites are almost eliminated when
adjustments are made for social and economic characteristics.
Members of the dominant group usually
marry within their group
Secession is
the withdrawal of a group of people from a dominant group to establish a new nation.
When Black respondents are asked how they get along with different minority groups, which group do they say they have the least difficulty getting along with?
American Indians
Which sociologist developed the typology distinguishing prejudice and discrimination?
Robert Merton
A fixed standard based on a minimum level of subsistence below which families should not be expected to exist is called
absolute deprivation.
All of the following are processes that may create subordinate groups EXCEPT
colonialism
Who formulated a typology that shows how prejudice and discrimination are related but not the same thing?
W.E.B. DuBois
Patricia J. Williams, an African American academic, writes about her experiences with redlining. What happened after the lender found out she was Black?
She was suddenly asked to pay more and offered a less attractive loan, She was offered the original loan terms only after she threatened to sue, She was told her loan was a "risk" due to falling prices in the neighborhood.
Members of a minority or subordinate group
acquire membership by being born into that group, have less power over their lives than do members of a majority, share physical or cultural characteristics that distinguish them from the dominant group.
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