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- Definition of nutrition and calorie - What are the 6 classes of nutrients? - What are the calories per gram for protein/carbohydrate/fat/alcohol? - Protein: amino acids, essential, nonessential, complete and incomplete protein, complementary proteins Know RDA for protein (g/kg) for most adults, endurance training and strength training - Carbohydrates: What are monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides; simple and complex carbs, fiber (soluble and insoluble)? What is recommended RDA for f…


the physiological impulse to seek food, promoted by the lack or shortage of basic foods needed to provide the energy and nutrients that support health


the constituents of a food that sustain humans physiologically; proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water


the desire to eat (more psychological than physiological)


the science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential elements of food eaten

digestive process

the process by which the body breaks down foods and either absorbs or excretes them


a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy obtained from a particular food


abnormal depletion of body fluids (result of lack of water)


what percentage of the body is water?


- the nutrients we need in the largest amounts
- carbohydrates, fats, and proteins


- the nutrients we need in smaller amounts
- vitamins and minerals


the essential constituents of nearly all body cells
- key elements of antibodies, enzymes, and hormones
- transport oxygen and nutrients
- important role in developing / repairing bone, muscle, and skin

2nd most abundant substance in humans next to water

amino acids

the nitrogen-containing building blocks of protein

essential amino acids

9 of the basic nitrogen-containing building blocks of protein, which must be obtained from foods to ensure health

complete (high-quality) proteins

proteins that contain all 9 of the essential amino acids

incomplete proteins

proteins that lack one or more of the essential amino acids (plant protein)

complementary proteins

- 2 incomplete protein foods that complement each other's inadequate essential amino acids
- when combined, they yield all nine essential amino acids to provide a complete protein
(legumes + grains)


- basic nutrients that supply the body with glucose, the energy form most commonly used to sustain normal activity
- 310 g/day

simple carbohydrates

- a major type of carbohydrate that provides short-term energy (simple sugars)
- glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose

complex carbohydrates

- a major type of carbohydrate that provides sustained energy
- starches, glycogen, fiber


a complex carbohydrate form that is the storage form of glucose in plants


the complex carbohydrate form of glucose stored in the liver and in muscles


- the indigestible portion of plant foods that helps move food through the digestive system and softens stools by absorbing water
- bulk or roughage
- 20-35g/day

insoluble fiber

- found in bran, whole-grain breads, and most fruits and vegetables
- found to reduce risk of several forms of cancer
- do not dissolve in water

soluble fiber

- found in oat bran, dried beans, and some fruits and vegetables
- helps lower blood cholesterol levels
- helps reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
- dissolve in water

whole grains and high-fiber diets

protect against:
- obesity
- colon and rectal cancers
- heart disease
- constipation
- type II diabetes

whole grains

grains that are milled in their complete form


- basic nutrients composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms (lipids)
- needed for the proper functioning of cells, insulation of body organs against shock, maintenance of body temperature, and healthy skin and hair
- No more than 35% of total calories


- 95% of total body fat
- the most common form of fat in the body
- excess calories consumed are converted by the liver, into them and stored as body fat


- 5% of total body fat
- a form of fat circulating in the blood that can accumulate on the inner walls of arteries, causing a narrowing of the channel through which blood flows (heart disease)

- LDL (bad)
- HDL (good)

2 forms of cholesterol

low-density lipotropin (LDL)

compounds that facilitate the transport of cholesterol in the blood to the body's cells

high-density lipotropin (HDL)

compounds that facilitate the transport of cholesterol in the blood to the liver for metabolism and elimination from the body

- saturated
- unsaturated
- trans fatty acids

3 types of dietary fat

saturated fats

- fats that are unable to hold any more hydrogen in their chemical structure
- derived mostly from animal sources
- solid at room temperature
- increase both LDL and HDL
- 7-10% of total calories

unsaturated fats

- fats that do have room for more hydrogen in their chemical structure
- derived mostly from plants
- liquid at room temperature
- decrease LDL and increase HDL

trans fats (trans fatty acids)

- fatty acids that are produced when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated to make them more solid
- increase LDL levels while lowering HDL levels
- Eating these increases risk of coronary and heart disease and sudden cardiac death


- potent, essential, organic compounds
- promote growth and help maintain life and health


substances believed to protect against tissue damage at the cellular level

functional foods

foods believed to have specific health benefits and/or to prevent disease


substances believed to protect against tissue damage at the cellular level


fat-soluble plant pigments with antioxidant properties


- inorganic, indestructible elements that aid physiological processes
- vitamins cannot be absorbed without them


- minerals needed in large amounts
- sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and chloride

trace minerals

- minerals needed in small amounts
- iron, zinc, manganese, copper, and iodine
- excesses or deficiencies of these can cause serious problems


- necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions
- recommended consumption less than 1 teaspoon of table salt per day (2,300 mg)
- pickles, snack foods, processed cheeses, canned soups, frozen dinners, breads, smoked meats, and sausages


- plays a vital role in building strong bones and teeth, muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, regulating heartbeat, and fluid balance within cell
- recommended amount 1000 to 1200 mg/day
- milk, orange juice, soy milk, broccoli, cauliflower, peas, beans, nuts, and molasses


- the most common nutrient deficiency globally
- women aged 19-50 need 18mg per day
- men aged 19 -50 need 8 mg per day


- condition that results from the body's inability to produce hemoglobin
- body cells receive less oxygen, and carbon dioxide wastes are removed less efficiently

iron toxicity (iron overload)

ingesting too many iron containing supplements

% daily value (%dv)

the value on a food label that lets you know how much of a nutrient is provided by eating one serving of the food

dietary supplements

vitamins and minerals taken by mouth that are intended to supplement existing diets


a person who primarily eats food grown or produced locally


grown without use of pesticides, chemicals, or hormones

food allergy

- overreaction by the body to normally harmless proteins, which are perceived as allergens.
- in response, the body produces antibodies, triggering allergic symptoms

celiac disease

an inherited autoimmune disorder affecting the digestive process of the small intestine and triggered by the consumption of gluten

food intolerance

adverse effects resulting when people who lack the digestive chemicals needed to break down certain substances eat those substances (lactose intolerance)

genetically modified foods (GMOs)

foods derived from organisms whose DNA has been altered using genetic techniques

- proteins
- carbohydrates
- fats
- vitamins
- minerals
- water

6 classes of nutrients

benefits to a balanced vegetarian diet

- provides a superb alternative to a high-fat, high calore, meat based cuisine

9 calories

fat calories per gram?

4 calories

carbohydrates and protein calories per gram?

do not contain calories

vitamins, minerals, and water calories per gram?

non essential protein

other 11 proteins that can be produced by the body

0.8 g/kg a day

RDA for protein

20-35 grams a day

RDA for fiber

refined grains

carbohydrates with few health benefits

recommended dietary allowances



recommended amount you should consume


amount you choose to eat at any one time

nutrient dense foods

high nutritional value foods

empty calorie foods

foods packed with solid fats and sugars that do no nourish your body

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