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KINE 250 - Chapter 9 - Eating for a Healthier You

- Definition of nutrition and calorie - What are the 6 classes of nutrients? - What are the calories per gram for protein/carbohydrate/fat/alcohol? - Protein: amino acids, essential, nonessential, complete and incomplete protein, complementary proteins Know RDA for protein (g/kg) for most adults, endurance training and strength training - Carbohydrates: What are monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides; simple and complex carbs, fiber (soluble and insoluble)? What is recommended RDA for f…
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hunger
the physiological impulse to seek food, promoted by the lack or shortage of basic foods needed to provide the energy and nutrients that support health
nutrients
the constituents of a food that sustain humans physiologically; proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water
appetite
the desire to eat (more psychological than physiological)
nutrition
the science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential elements of food eaten
digestive process
the process by which the body breaks down foods and either absorbs or excretes them
calorie
a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy obtained from a particular food
dehydration
abnormal depletion of body fluids (result of lack of water)
50-60%
what percentage of the body is water?
macronutrients
- the nutrients we need in the largest amounts
- carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
micronutrients
- the nutrients we need in smaller amounts
- vitamins and minerals
proteins
the essential constituents of nearly all body cells
- key elements of antibodies, enzymes, and hormones
- transport oxygen and nutrients
- important role in developing / repairing bone, muscle, and skin

2nd most abundant substance in humans next to water
amino acids
the nitrogen-containing building blocks of protein
essential amino acids
9 of the basic nitrogen-containing building blocks of protein, which must be obtained from foods to ensure health
complete (high-quality) proteins
proteins that contain all 9 of the essential amino acids
incomplete proteins
proteins that lack one or more of the essential amino acids (plant protein)
complementary proteins
- 2 incomplete protein foods that complement each other's inadequate essential amino acids
- when combined, they yield all nine essential amino acids to provide a complete protein
(legumes + grains)
carbohydrates
- basic nutrients that supply the body with glucose, the energy form most commonly used to sustain normal activity
- 310 g/day
simple carbohydrates
- a major type of carbohydrate that provides short-term energy (simple sugars)
- glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose
complex carbohydrates
- a major type of carbohydrate that provides sustained energy
- starches, glycogen, fiber
starch
a complex carbohydrate form that is the storage form of glucose in plants
glycogen
the complex carbohydrate form of glucose stored in the liver and in muscles
fiber
- the indigestible portion of plant foods that helps move food through the digestive system and softens stools by absorbing water
- bulk or roughage
- 20-35g/day
insoluble fiber
- found in bran, whole-grain breads, and most fruits and vegetables
- found to reduce risk of several forms of cancer
- do not dissolve in water
soluble fiber
- found in oat bran, dried beans, and some fruits and vegetables
- helps lower blood cholesterol levels
- helps reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
- dissolve in water
whole grains and high-fiber diets
protect against:
- obesity
- colon and rectal cancers
- heart disease
- constipation
- type II diabetes
whole grains
grains that are milled in their complete form
fats
- basic nutrients composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms (lipids)
- needed for the proper functioning of cells, insulation of body organs against shock, maintenance of body temperature, and healthy skin and hair
- No more than 35% of total calories
triglycerides
- 95% of total body fat
- the most common form of fat in the body
- excess calories consumed are converted by the liver, into them and stored as body fat
cholesterol
- 5% of total body fat
- a form of fat circulating in the blood that can accumulate on the inner walls of arteries, causing a narrowing of the channel through which blood flows (heart disease)
- LDL (bad)
- HDL (good)
2 forms of cholesterol
low-density lipotropin (LDL)
compounds that facilitate the transport of cholesterol in the blood to the body's cells
high-density lipotropin (HDL)
compounds that facilitate the transport of cholesterol in the blood to the liver for metabolism and elimination from the body
- saturated
- unsaturated
- trans fatty acids
3 types of dietary fat
saturated fats
- fats that are unable to hold any more hydrogen in their chemical structure
- derived mostly from animal sources
- solid at room temperature
- increase both LDL and HDL
- 7-10% of total calories
unsaturated fats
- fats that do have room for more hydrogen in their chemical structure
- derived mostly from plants
- liquid at room temperature
- decrease LDL and increase HDL
trans fats (trans fatty acids)
- fatty acids that are produced when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated to make them more solid
- increase LDL levels while lowering HDL levels
- Eating these increases risk of coronary and heart disease and sudden cardiac death
vitamins
- potent, essential, organic compounds
- promote growth and help maintain life and health
antioxidants
substances believed to protect against tissue damage at the cellular level
functional foods
foods believed to have specific health benefits and/or to prevent disease
antioxidants
substances believed to protect against tissue damage at the cellular level
carotenoids
fat-soluble plant pigments with antioxidant properties
minerals
- inorganic, indestructible elements that aid physiological processes
- vitamins cannot be absorbed without them
macrominerals
- minerals needed in large amounts
- sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and chloride
trace minerals
- minerals needed in small amounts
- iron, zinc, manganese, copper, and iodine
- excesses or deficiencies of these can cause serious problems
sodium
- necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions
- recommended consumption less than 1 teaspoon of table salt per day (2,300 mg)
- pickles, snack foods, processed cheeses, canned soups, frozen dinners, breads, smoked meats, and sausages
calcium
- plays a vital role in building strong bones and teeth, muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, regulating heartbeat, and fluid balance within cell
- recommended amount 1000 to 1200 mg/day
- milk, orange juice, soy milk, broccoli, cauliflower, peas, beans, nuts, and molasses
iron
- the most common nutrient deficiency globally
- women aged 19-50 need 18mg per day
- men aged 19 -50 need 8 mg per day
anemia
- condition that results from the body's inability to produce hemoglobin
- body cells receive less oxygen, and carbon dioxide wastes are removed less efficiently
iron toxicity (iron overload)
ingesting too many iron containing supplements
% daily value (%dv)
the value on a food label that lets you know how much of a nutrient is provided by eating one serving of the food
dietary supplements
vitamins and minerals taken by mouth that are intended to supplement existing diets
locavore
a person who primarily eats food grown or produced locally
organic
grown without use of pesticides, chemicals, or hormones
food allergy
- overreaction by the body to normally harmless proteins, which are perceived as allergens.
- in response, the body produces antibodies, triggering allergic symptoms
celiac disease
an inherited autoimmune disorder affecting the digestive process of the small intestine and triggered by the consumption of gluten
food intolerance
adverse effects resulting when people who lack the digestive chemicals needed to break down certain substances eat those substances (lactose intolerance)
genetically modified foods (GMOs)
foods derived from organisms whose DNA has been altered using genetic techniques
- proteins
- carbohydrates
- fats
- vitamins
- minerals
- water
6 classes of nutrients
benefits to a balanced vegetarian diet
- provides a superb alternative to a high-fat, high calore, meat based cuisine
9 calories
fat calories per gram?
4 calories
carbohydrates and protein calories per gram?
do not contain calories
vitamins, minerals, and water calories per gram?
non essential protein
other 11 proteins that can be produced by the body
0.8 g/kg a day
RDA for protein
20-35 grams a day
RDA for fiber
refined grains
carbohydrates with few health benefits
recommended dietary allowances
RDA
serving
recommended amount you should consume
portion
amount you choose to eat at any one time
nutrient dense foods
high nutritional value foods
empty calorie foods
foods packed with solid fats and sugars that do no nourish your body