AP Comparative Government Vocabulary List
Terms in this set (100)
Political authority is concentrated in a small group of/one politician(s).
The state proclaimed in 1967 when the Ibo people of Nigeria sought independence from the country.
Tax exempt, charitable trusts in Iran that control 20% of the country's GDP through petroleum.
An administrative organization that relies on nonelective officials and regular procedures
A small group of people, esp. a group of advisers to a ruler or politician, with a shared, typically nefarious, purpose
Catch All Party
A party that attracts a wide range of political interests; tends to lack ideology
Social or cultural divisions within a state
The permanent professional branches of a government's administration, excluding military and judicial branches and elected politicians
The way citizens organize and communicate their interests
The control of a state by interest groups.
Legitimacy of a leader derived from personality, rather than ideology.
A sudden, violent, illegal seizure of government power.
An economy in which production, investment, prices, and incomes are determined centrally by a government
A written set of laws that apply to everyone under a government.
A system of law based on precedent and customs
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
The means by which social scientists make comparisons across cases.
A political party in Great Britain which developed from the Tories in the 1830s, One of the two major parties in the UK, it is generally more right wing, and more towards free-markets and the upper classes,advocates a mixed economy and encourages property owning
The body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government
A statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable.
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
The spread of power away from the center to local branches or governments (devolution).
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
The Leninist organizational structure that concentrates power in the hands of the party elite
The process of making something democratic.
The act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining
The transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to regional governments.
Philosophy that aims to limit the power of the state and increase the power of the market and private property in an economy.
A set of rules that decide how votes are cast, counted, and translated into seats in a legislature.
Process through which future political leaders are identified and selected.
An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
A system in which power is divided between the national and regional governments
First Past the Post
Electoral system based on single-member districts in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
Divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
Fusion of Power
Principle of parliamentary democracy in which the executive and legislative branches share powers.
Separation of Power
Division of powers among branches of government.
Gross Domestic Product
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year.
Gross National Product
The total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
The system or form by which a community or other political unit is governed
Head of Government
The executive role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the state, such as formulating and executing policy.
Head of State
The executive role that symbolizes and represents the people both nationally and internationally.
A procedural democracy, with elections, but without real competition, and lacking some civil rights and liberties.
The richest countries with advanced economies and liberal states.
A social group whose members control some field of activity and who have common aims
Review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
The working-class socialist party established in the 1890s to represent the interest of workers in the British government, and to try to achieve change peacefully.
Popular acceptance by citizens of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
Liberal Democratic Party
In Britain, the number-three party and in some ways the most radical.
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
A method of leadership that seeks to learn from the masses and immerse the political leadership in the concerns and conditions of the masses, developed by Mao Zedong during the Chinese revolution.
Rule by one or more military officials, often brought to power through a coup d'état.
Mixed Presidential Parliamentary System
A system consisting of both a president elected by the people and another head of government (usually a prime minister) who is elected by a legislative body (e.g. Russia)
The process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies.
A system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition.
A group of people who feel bound into a single body by shared culture, values, folkways, religion and/or language
Newly Industrializing Countries
Less developed countries whose economies and whose trade now include significant amounts of manufactured products. As a result, these countries have a per capita GDP significantly higher than the average per capita GDP for less developed countries.
The process of filing influential jobs in the state, society, or the economy with people approved and chosen by the communist party
International organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues.
A system of government in which a small group holds power
A political system in which only one party exists.
One-Party Dominant System
A party system in which a single party rules for long periods of time and the opposition parties are not likely to gain the support needed to successfully challenge the dominant party for control of the government
Industries partially or fully owned by the state.
A system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president.
An informal aspect of policy-making in which a powerful patron offers resources such as land, contracts, protection, or jobs in return for the support and services of lower-status and less powerful clients; corruption, preferential treatment, and inequality are characteristic of clientelist politics.
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half.
A seven-member committee that became the leading policy-making body of the Communist Party in Russia.
An overall set of values widely shared within a society
Complex process by which people get their sense of political identity, beliefs, and values.
Theory that young middle-class voters are likely to support environmentalism, feminism, and other "new" issues.
A system of government in which the legislative and executive branches operate independently of each other
An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
Quasi-Autonomous Government Organization (quango)
An agency that is financed by the government but acts independently of it.
The process of selecting future leaders of government.
A government in power; a form or system of rule or management; a period of rule
A state, developed in all advanced industrial societies, that regulates the behavior of producers and consumers
A country that obtains a hefty income by exporting raw materials or leasing out natural resources to foreign companies
The overthrow of a government by those who are governed
Rule of Law
Principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
The six-year administration of Mexican presidents
The code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
The rapid transition to capitalism adopted by Yeltsin in 1992, which was supposed to involve liberalization of prices, privatization of state property, and stabilization of the Russian currency that had disastrous economic and social results
An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official (not voting for more than one person for any position)
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
A geographical area ruled by sovereign government.
Structural Adjustment/Import Substitution
Development strategy that uses tariffs and other barriers to imports, and therefore stimulates domestic industries.
A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. The European Union is one such organization
A government controlled by religious leaders
The region of the world containing a high concentration of underdeveloped or emergent countries
Characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control
A political party system with two major political parties
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Vote of Confidence
Vote taken by a legislature as to whether its members continue to support the current prime minister. Depending on the country, a vote of no confidence can force the resignation of the prime minister and/or lead to new parliamentary elections.
A government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
People who spoke a common language and originally belonged to a number of small city-states in the forests on the southern edge of the savanna in what is today Benin and southwestern Nigeria.
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