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Unit 1 AP Environmental Science: Earth Systems and Resources Chapter 1 * Multiple-Choice Questions
Terms in this set (20)
The majority of the rocks in the Earth's crust are:
(A) Igneous rocks are solidified from magma. If the magma cools slowly, the rocks are coarser in nature. Had the question been worded "the majority of the rocks on the surface of Earth," the answer would have been sedimentary
Which of the following is an example of an igneous rock?
(D) Other examples of igneous rocks include basalt and quartz
The smallest particle of soil is known as
(A) Clay is the smallest-sized particle found in soil
Which of the following environmental factors does NOT lower the pH of soil?
(A) acid rain
(B) use of fertilizers
(C) weathering of minerals
(D) mine spoils
(E) all choices can possibly lower the pH of soil
Which of the types of soil listed below contains the highest amount of nutrients?
(E) Loam is soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentrations. Loam soils generally contain more nutrients and humus than sandy soils, have better infiltration and drainage then silty soils, and are easier to till then clay soils.
An example of a volcano with broad, gentle slopes and built by the eruption of runny, fluid-type basalt lava would be
(A) Mount Saint Helens
(E) Mount Rainier
(C) Kilauea is a shield volcano that is characterized by basalt lava building enormous, low-angle, gently sloping cones. The fluid nature of the lava prevents it from piling in steep mounds. Shield volcanoes occur along the mid-oceanic ridge, where seafloor spreading is in progress and along subduction zones related to volcanic arcs. The largest volcanoes on Earth are shield volcanoes.
Which of the following is at a convergent boundary where two continental plates are presently colliding?
(A) The Appalachia Mountains
(B) The Himalayas
(C) The Andes Mountains
(D) The Rocky Mountains
(E) None of the above
(B) Notice the word "presently." The Appalachian and Rocky Mountains were formed at ancient convergent plate boundaries. The Andes lie at a convergent boundary where oceanic lithosphere is being subducted under the South American continent.
The Dust Bowl of the 1930s resulted in the passage of what legislation?
(A) Endangered American Wilderness Act
(B) Soil and Water Conservation Act
(C) Federal Land Management Act
(D) Public Rangelands and Improvement Act
(E) Soil Erosion and Conservation Act
(B) Refer to the case study presented in this chapter, Page 95
Poor nutrient-holding capacity, good water infiltration capacity, and good aeration properties are examples of what type of particle found in soil?
(C) Water flows through sandy soils too fast for many crops and requires frequent irrigation
Which factor is the most important in determining the characteristics of soil?
(C) The type of bedrock
(D) The type of vegetation that is growing
(E) Time for the soil to develop
(B) Climate is the major factor in determining the kind of plant and animal life on and in the soil. It determines the amount of water available for weathering minerals, transporting the minerals, and releasing elements. Climate, through its influence on soil temperature, determines the rate of chemical weathering.
Warm, moist climates encourage rapid plant growth and thus high organic matter production. The opposite is true for cold, dry climates. Organic matter decomposition is also accelerated in warm, moist climates. Climate controls freezing, thawing, wetting, and drying, which break parent material apart.
Rainfall causes leaching. Rain dissolves some minerals, such as carbonates, and transports them deeper into the soil. Some acidic soils have developed from parent materials that originally contained limestone. Rainfall can also be acidic, especially downwind from industrial processes.
Which period in geological time describes the following: "Development of flowering plants. Large diversity in dinosaurs but ending with their sudden extinction approximately 65 million years ago. Formation of the Andes Mountains. African and South American plates begin to separate. Climate is cooling. Shallow seas are prominent."?
(D) Refer to the section "Geologic Time Scale" in this chapter, page 77
Weathering contributes to the formation of which type of rock?
(E) None of the above
A rock that would most likely contain a fossil would be
(E) All of the above
(C) Sedimentary rock is formed by the piling of material over time. If conditions are right, organisms that die may be covered by this material and become fossilized. Fossils are impressions made up of minerals.
The most common element found in Earth's crust is
(A) Eight elements make up 99% of Earth's crust. In order of decreasing abundance, they are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron. calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium
The horizon of soil, also known as the topsoil layer, that contains humus, minerals, and roots, and that is rich in living organisms is known as the
(A) A layer
(B) B layer
(C) C layer
(D) D layer
(E) O layer
(A) If the topsoil is brown or black, it is rich in nitrogen and is good for crops. If the topsoil is gray, yellow, or red, it is low in organic matter and poor for crops
Earth is closest to the sun in the Northern Hemisphere during
(E) all seasons
(A) The angle of sunlight determines the season, not how close Earth is to the sun
An earthquake of Richter magnitude 5 is how many times larger on the Richter scale than an earthquake of Richter magnitude 3?
(D) Four times
(E) One hundred times
The Richter scale is a log10 scale and measures the magnitude of an earthquake. 5-3=2 and 10^2=100. However, the Richter scale does NOT measure the energy of an earthquake. The energy of a Richter magnitude 5 has 32 more times more energy than a Richter magnitude of 4.
Which of the choices above represents the most stable and the least stable foundation material to build upon in areas that are frequented by earthquakes?
Most stable Least Stable
A = Bedrock Sand
B = Unconsolidated sand Bedrock
C = Clay Bedrock
D = Sand and mud Clay
E = Water-saturated sand Sand
(A) Soil type can substantially increase earthquake risk. The worst soils to build upon include deep, loose sand; silty clays; sand and gravel; and soft, saturated granular soils. Earthquake forces are amplified on water-saturated soils, changing the soil from a solid to a liquid, a process known as liquefaction. Liquefaction makes the ground incapable of supporting a foundation. During Liquefaction, the ground can crack or heave, causing uneven settling or building collapse. The The best soils to build upon to reduce damage from earthquakes are bedrock (deep and unbroken rock formations) and stiff soils. These soil types are best, since much less vibration is transferred through the foundation to the structure above
The San Andreas Fault in California occurs at
(A) a convergent boundary
(B) a divergent boundary
(C) a transform boundary
(D) a subduction zone
(E) an oceanic ridge
(C) Places where plates slide past each other are called transform boundaries. The most famous transform boundary in the world is the San Andreas fault.
Earth's surface is part of the
(B) The asthenosphere is the region below the lithosphere, estimated as being from 50 to several hundred miles (85 to several hundred km) thick
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