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34 terms

NASM Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science

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Kinetic Chain
The combination and interrelation of the nervous, skeletal, and muscular systems.
Nervous System
Large groups of cells that form nerves, which provide a communication network within the body
Sensory Function
The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either inttermal or external environments
Integrative Function
The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response
Motor Function
The neuromuscular response to sensory information
Neuron
The functional unit of the nervous system
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Neurons that transmit nerve impulses fromm effector sites to the brain or spinal cord
Interneurons
Neurons that transmit impulses from one neuron to another
Motor (efferent) neurons
Neurons that transmit nerve impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the effector sites.
Central nervous system
Consists of the brain and spinal cord and serves mainly to interpret information
Peripheral nervous system
Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body and serve to relay information from bodily orgams to the brain and from the brain to bodily organs
Mechanoreceptors
The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making which produces the appropriate response
Muscle spindles
Fibers sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change
Golgi tendon organs
Organs sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.
Joint receptors
Receptors sensitive to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration in the joint
Tendons
attach muscles to bones and provide the anchor from which the muscle can exert force and control bone and joint
Muscle
is tissue consisting of long cells that contract when stimulated to produce motion
Neurotransmitter
are chemical messengers that transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
The Muscular system
is a series of muscles that the nervous system commands to move the skeletal system
Sarcomere
the functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction which consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin
Neural activation
the contraction of a muscle generated by the communication between the nervous system and muscular system
Skeletal system
The body's frame, which is comprised of bones and joints
Bones
Hard connective tissues that connect to create a skeletal framework
Joints
The movable places where two or more bones meet
Axial skeleton
Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
Appendicular skeleton
Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.
Depression
Flattened or indented portion of bone which can be a muscle attachment site.
Process
Projection protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach
Arthrokinematics
The movement of the joints
Synovial joints
Joints that are held together by a join capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body
Nonsynovial joints
Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage
Ligament
Connective tissue that connects bone to bone
Type I Slow Twitch Fibers
Smaller in size, produce less force, slow to fatigue, long-term contractions
Type II Fast Twitch Fibers
Lower in capillaries, mitochondria, myoglobin, produce more force, quick to fatigue, short-term contractions (force & power)