The Hands, G. E. Moore
Terms in this set (6)
What is his proof of the external world?
P1: Here's a hand (gesture) --> justification, verbalizing
P2: Here's another hand (gesture)
C1: Two hands exist in this moment
-Temporality of proof is irrelevant
-Couldn't put it in the past
C2: Things exist that are external to my mind
-Unstated premise: hands exist outside of my mind
What is the problem with this proof?
Circularity: use of "is" (in premise) notates existence before it has been proven
Presupposes the conclusion
What are the three conditions for the proof to succeed?
1. premise is different from conclusion --> argument is not circular
2. Have to KNOW the premises are true vs. just believing they are true (belief=an opinion without justification
3. Conclusion must follow logically from the premises
Why/how does this proof satisfy the three conditions?
1. Premise is different from conclusion
-Premises are more specific because they involve gestures, each premise is about one thing and the conclusion is about two
- Conclusion might have been true even if the premises are false
-could not be the case if the premises are included in the conclusion because it would all be true or false
2. Sense perceptions yield knowledge
-combination of phrase and gesture = knowing
-Protagorean view of knowing (relativism)
3. Format of proof proves that conclusion follows the premises
-P1, P2, C=P1+P2
Why do we think people accept proofs like this?
We believe proofs based on sense perceptions
ex.) misprints in a book
Does the proof stand up to Descartes' skeptical method?
It does not stand up because if we employ Descartes' skeptical method, nothing exists but the self and God.
Counter --> Moore: You can know things you can't prove
Descartes: You must have in-depth proof of things' existence to know them
Moore: You can know things without justification through proofs
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