Terms in this set (40)
Wundt & Titchener used introspection to reveal structure of the mind.
Human Factors Psychology
Study of human-machine interactions & safety & accessibility of machines & environments.
Study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, & traits.
We comply with larger requests after agreeing to smaller requests.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
We act to reduce discomfort when our thoughts are inconsistent.
Tendency to believe world is fair → getting what is deserved.
Frustration (blocking of attempt to achieve goal) creates anger → aggression.
Social Exchange Theory
Social behavior is an exchange to maximize benefits & minimize costs.
Expectation that people will help those needing their help.
Shared goals that override differences among people & require their cooperation.
Recording of waves of electrical activity across brain's surface.
Uses magnetic fields & radiowaves to produce images of soft tissue.
Nerve network that helps control arousal.
Cells that support/nourish/protect neurons & influence thinking/learning.
Neural fibers connecting two brain hemispheres & carrying messages between them.
Study of environmental influences on gene expression without changing DNA.
Study of relationships between stimuli & our psychological experience
To perceive as different, stimuli must differ by minimum percentage
Nerve cells in brain that respond to specific stimulus features
Site of transduction from sound waves to neural impulses
Spinal cord blocks/allows pain signals to pass to brain
Increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
Emotions that accompany good & bad events become retrieval cues
Attributing an event experienced/heard about/imagined to wrong source
Group of people from a given time period
Law of Effect
Behaviors followed by reinforcement/consequence become more/less likely
Alleviating stress directly
Alleviating stress by avoiding stressor or attending to emotional needs
External Locus of Control
Perception that fate is outside of personal control
Internal Locus of Control
Perception that you control your own fate
Yerkes-Dodson Law (Optimal Arousal Theory)
Performance increases with arousal up to a point & then decreases
Zajonc; LeDoux Theory
Some embodied responses happen instantly, without conscious appraisal
Cognitive appraisal, sometimes without our awareness, defines emotion
Emotional experience is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger physiological responses & subjective emotional experience
Two-Factor Theory (Schachter-Singer)
To experience emotion, must be physically aroused & cognitively label arousal
Impairment of language due to damage of certain cortical areas
Overestimating others' noticing & evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
Fear & avoidance of situations where one has felt loss of control & panic
Study of psychological, neural, endocrine effects on immune system & health