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losing pleasure from activities that they once enjoyed

Electroconvulsive therapy

electric shock therapy used to treat depression in select groups of patients who do not respond to antidepressants


lack of energy


average affect and activity

Flight of Ideas

racing, often unconnected, thoughts

Hypertensive Crisis

a life-threatening condition that results when MAOIs are mixed with tyramine of certain drugs


a period of abnormally and persistently elevated mood lasting 4 days and including 3 or 4 additional symptoms


the process by which seizure activity in a specific area of the brain is initially stimulated by reaching a threshold of the cumulative effects of stress

Labile emotions

emotions that are rapidly changing or fluctuating.

Latency of response

takes up to 30 sec to answer a question


a distinct period during which mood is abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable

Pressured speech

unrelenting, rapid, often loud talking without pauses

Psychomotor retardation

slow body movements, slow cognitive processes, and slow verbal interaction


repeatedly going over the same thoughts

Seasonal affective disorder

a mood disorder with less severe symptoms that is precipitated by the onset of winter

Suicidal ideation

thinking about killing oneself

Suicidal precautions

measures taken to prevent suicide

Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)

A screening test used to identify movement disorders. The client is observed in several positions and the severity of symptoms is rated 0 to 4.


Restless movement, pacing, inability to sit still


Tendency to speak very little or to convey little substance of meaning

Blunted affect

Restricted range of emotional feeling, tone, or mood


Psychologically induced immobility occasionally marked by periods of agitation oe excitement; the client seems motionless, as if in a trance.

Command hallucinations

Disturbed auditory sensory perceptions demanding that the client take action often to harm themselves or others; often referred to as "voices


Fixed false beliefs that have no basis in reality

Dystonic reactions

EPS characterized by spasms in discrete muscle groups such as the neck muscles or eye muscles


Imitation of movements and gestures of another person whom the client is observing

Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) Serious neurological side effects of antipsychotic medications

Serious neurological side effects of antipsychotic medications

Flat affect

Absence of any facial expression that would indicate emotions or mood


False sensory perceptions or perceptual experiences that do not exist in reality

Ideas of reference

Client's inaccurate interpretation that general events are personally directed to them

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

An EPS characterized by a high fever, muscle rigidity, increased muscle enzymes; frequently fatal


Antipsychotic medications


EPS characterized by a shuffling gait, mask-like facies, muscle stiffness, cogwheeling rigidity, drooling, akinesia


Avoidance of places or situations from which escape might be difficult


A vague feeling of dread or apprehension in response to an external stimuli

Anxiety disorders

A group of conditions that share a key feature of excessive anxiety with ensuing behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses


Ritualistic or repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person carries out continuously to neutraize anxiety

Defense mechanisms

Cognitive distortions that a person uses unconsciously to maintain a sense of being in control of a situation.


Feelings of being disconnected from oneself; the client feels detached from their behavior


Feeling afraid or threatened by a clearly identifiable external stimulus that represents a danger to that person


A form of rapid desensitization in which therapist confronts client with the phobic object until it no longer produces anxiety

Mild anxiety

Sensation that something is different and warrants special attention

Moderate anxiety

The disturbing feeling that something is definitely wrong; the person becomes agitated or nervous


Recurrent, persistent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts, images, or impulses that cause marked anxiety and therefore interfere with normal functioning.

Panic attack

15-30 minutes of rapid, intense, escalating anxiety in which a person experiences great emotional fear and physiologic discomfort

Panic disorder

Composed of discrete episodes of panic attacks


Illogical, intense, persistent fear of a specific object or social situation that causes extreme distress.

Positive reframing

Turning negative messages into positive messages

Primary gain

The relief of anxiety achieved by performing the specific anxiety driven behavior.

Secondary gain

The attention received from others as a result of these behaviors

Severe anxiety

Sensation that things are out of control. The person has trouble thinking and reasoning. Muscles tighten and vital signs increase. The person is restless, irritable and angry or freezes.


The wear and tear that life causes on the body.

Systematic desensitization

Therapy that involves progressively exposing the client to the threatening object in a safe setting until the client's anxiety decreases.

Antisocial personality disorder

Disregard for the rights of others, rules and laws

Borderline personality disorder Characterized by unstable relationships, self-image and affect. Impulsive and self-mutilating

Characterized by unstable relationships, self-image and affect. Impulsive and self-mutilating

Cognitive restructuring

A technique useful in changing patterns of thinking by helping clients to recognize negative thoughts and replace them with positive patterns of thinking.


Technique used to highlight the incongruence between a person's verbalizations and actual behavior.


Involving unhappiness, restlessness, and malaise

Limit setting

A technique that involves 3 steps: stating the behavioral limit, identifying the consequences if the limit is exceeded, and identifying the expected or desired outcome

Narcissistic personality disorder

Characterized by a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy

No self-harm contract

An agreement in which a client agrees not to engage in self-harm and to report to the nurse when he is loosing control

Obsessive Compulsive personality disorder

Preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and control


An ingrained enduring pattern of behaving and relating to oneself, others, and the environment

Personality disorders

When personality traits become inflexible and maladaptive and significantly interfere with how a person functions

Positive self-talk

The client reframes negative thoughts into positive ones

Thought stopping

A technique used to alter the process of negative or self-critical thought patterns

Time out

Retreat to a neutral place to give the opportunity to regain self-control

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