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nursing psychiatric 222

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Anhedonia
losing pleasure from activities that they once enjoyed
Electroconvulsive therapy
electric shock therapy used to treat depression in select groups of patients who do not respond to antidepressants
Anergia
lack of energy
Euthymic
average affect and activity
Flight of Ideas
racing, often unconnected, thoughts
Hypertensive Crisis
a life-threatening condition that results when MAOIs are mixed with tyramine of certain drugs
Hypomania
a period of abnormally and persistently elevated mood lasting 4 days and including 3 or 4 additional symptoms
Kindling
the process by which seizure activity in a specific area of the brain is initially stimulated by reaching a threshold of the cumulative effects of stress
Labile emotions
emotions that are rapidly changing or fluctuating.
Latency of response
takes up to 30 sec to answer a question
Mania
a distinct period during which mood is abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable
Pressured speech
unrelenting, rapid, often loud talking without pauses
Psychomotor retardation
slow body movements, slow cognitive processes, and slow verbal interaction
Ruminate
repeatedly going over the same thoughts
Seasonal affective disorder
a mood disorder with less severe symptoms that is precipitated by the onset of winter
Suicidal ideation
thinking about killing oneself
Suicidal precautions
measures taken to prevent suicide
Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)
A screening test used to identify movement disorders. The client is observed in several positions and the severity of symptoms is rated 0 to 4.
Akathesia
Restless movement, pacing, inability to sit still
Alogia
Tendency to speak very little or to convey little substance of meaning
Blunted affect
Restricted range of emotional feeling, tone, or mood
Catatonia
Psychologically induced immobility occasionally marked by periods of agitation oe excitement; the client seems motionless, as if in a trance.
Command hallucinations
Disturbed auditory sensory perceptions demanding that the client take action often to harm themselves or others; often referred to as "voices
Delusions
Fixed false beliefs that have no basis in reality
Dystonic reactions
EPS characterized by spasms in discrete muscle groups such as the neck muscles or eye muscles
Echopraxia
Imitation of movements and gestures of another person whom the client is observing
Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) Serious neurological side effects of antipsychotic medications
Serious neurological side effects of antipsychotic medications
Flat affect
Absence of any facial expression that would indicate emotions or mood
Hallucination
False sensory perceptions or perceptual experiences that do not exist in reality
Ideas of reference
Client's inaccurate interpretation that general events are personally directed to them
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
An EPS characterized by a high fever, muscle rigidity, increased muscle enzymes; frequently fatal
Neuroleptics
Antipsychotic medications
Pseudoparkinsonism
EPS characterized by a shuffling gait, mask-like facies, muscle stiffness, cogwheeling rigidity, drooling, akinesia
Agoraphobia
Avoidance of places or situations from which escape might be difficult
Anxiety
A vague feeling of dread or apprehension in response to an external stimuli
Anxiety disorders
A group of conditions that share a key feature of excessive anxiety with ensuing behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses
Compulsions
Ritualistic or repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person carries out continuously to neutraize anxiety
Defense mechanisms
Cognitive distortions that a person uses unconsciously to maintain a sense of being in control of a situation.
Depersonalization
Feelings of being disconnected from oneself; the client feels detached from their behavior
Fear
Feeling afraid or threatened by a clearly identifiable external stimulus that represents a danger to that person
Flooding
A form of rapid desensitization in which therapist confronts client with the phobic object until it no longer produces anxiety
Mild anxiety
Sensation that something is different and warrants special attention
Moderate anxiety
The disturbing feeling that something is definitely wrong; the person becomes agitated or nervous
Obsessions
Recurrent, persistent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts, images, or impulses that cause marked anxiety and therefore interfere with normal functioning.
Panic attack
15-30 minutes of rapid, intense, escalating anxiety in which a person experiences great emotional fear and physiologic discomfort
Panic disorder
Composed of discrete episodes of panic attacks
Phobia
Illogical, intense, persistent fear of a specific object or social situation that causes extreme distress.
Positive reframing
Turning negative messages into positive messages
Primary gain
The relief of anxiety achieved by performing the specific anxiety driven behavior.
Secondary gain
The attention received from others as a result of these behaviors
Severe anxiety
Sensation that things are out of control. The person has trouble thinking and reasoning. Muscles tighten and vital signs increase. The person is restless, irritable and angry or freezes.
Stress
The wear and tear that life causes on the body.
Systematic desensitization
Therapy that involves progressively exposing the client to the threatening object in a safe setting until the client's anxiety decreases.
Antisocial personality disorder
Disregard for the rights of others, rules and laws
Borderline personality disorder Characterized by unstable relationships, self-image and affect. Impulsive and self-mutilating
Characterized by unstable relationships, self-image and affect. Impulsive and self-mutilating
Cognitive restructuring
A technique useful in changing patterns of thinking by helping clients to recognize negative thoughts and replace them with positive patterns of thinking.
Confrontation
Technique used to highlight the incongruence between a person's verbalizations and actual behavior.
Dysphoric
Involving unhappiness, restlessness, and malaise
Limit setting
A technique that involves 3 steps: stating the behavioral limit, identifying the consequences if the limit is exceeded, and identifying the expected or desired outcome
Narcissistic personality disorder
Characterized by a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy
No self-harm contract
An agreement in which a client agrees not to engage in self-harm and to report to the nurse when he is loosing control
Obsessive Compulsive personality disorder
Preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and control
Personality
An ingrained enduring pattern of behaving and relating to oneself, others, and the environment
Personality disorders
When personality traits become inflexible and maladaptive and significantly interfere with how a person functions
Positive self-talk
The client reframes negative thoughts into positive ones
Thought stopping
A technique used to alter the process of negative or self-critical thought patterns
Time out
Retreat to a neutral place to give the opportunity to regain self-control