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new south

the "___ _____" movement developed after the civil war and centered on the belief that the south must abandon its single-minded preoccupation with agriculture and pursue industrial and commercial development

american tobacco company

controlled nine-tenths of the nations cigarette production in 1890 and about three-fourths of all tobacco production in 1904; broken up in 1911 for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act


the practice of farmers working land owned by others in return for supplies and a share of the crop, generally about half


the practice of farmers, who might have their own mule, plow, and line of credit with the country store, working land owned by others in exchange for a larger share of the return than sharecroppers, commonly three-fourths of teh cash crop and two-thirds of the subsistence crop

convict leasing

southern states avoided expenses and generated revenues after the war by leasing convicts, most of whom were black, as cheap labor to the railroads, mines, and lumber and turpentine camps

poll tax

___ _____ (or head taxes) owed per adult most heavily affected blacks and poor whites. they were used as a device to indirectly disenfranchise blacks

understanding clause

an alternative to the literacy clause in the MS plan designed as a loophole for whites otherwise disqualified from voting; the understandingclause stated that the voert, if unable to read the Constitution, could qualify by beaing able to "understand" it to the satisfaction of the registrar

Jim Crow

name of a stock character from ld minstrel shows that came to be applied to laws mandating public segregation of the races

separate but equal

a slogan popular with the "new south" prophets that played out in state laws requiring separate facilities for people of different races

Plessy vs Ferguson

Homer Plessy, who had 1/8 black ancestry, was arrested and convicted for refusing to leave a railroad car designated for white passengers only, in violation of the LA law. his appeal rose to the Supreme Court, which decided in 1896 that segregation laws were within the rights of the states

Booker T Washington

educator and leading black spokesman who argued that blacks should first establish an economic base for their advancement; his critics accused him of sacrificing the issues o broad education and of civil rights for the dubious acceptance of white conservatives and economic opportunities

WEB Du Bois

scholar, author, and editor of the journal The Crisis, who had an active career in racial protest, advocating a program of "ceaseless agitation" against disenfracnchisement and legalized segregation

great american desert

arid region of the great plains that acted as a barrier to cross on the way to the pacific and a refuge for indians but changed in the last half of the nineteenth century as a result of finds of gold, silver, and other minerals, completion of transcontinental railroads, destruction of the buffalo, the collapse of indian resistance, the rise of the range-cattle industry, and the dawning realization that the arid region need not be a sterile desert


thousands of blacks who migrated wast from the south in the aftermath of the collapse of adical Republican, in search of a haven from racism and poverty

battle of little bighorn

most famous battle of the Great Sioux War took place in 1876 in the Montana Territory; combined Souix and Cheyenne warriors massacred a vastly outnumbered US cavalry commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrog Custer

battle of wounded knee

last incident of the indians wars took place in 1890 in the Dakota Territory, where the US cavalry killed over 200 Sioux men, women, and children who were in the process of surrender

barbed wire

first practical fencing material for the great plains was invented in 1873 by Joseph Glidden and rapidly spelled the end of open range

Frederick Jackson Turner

historian who developed the influential thesis of the frontier as the westward-moving source of america's democratic politics, open society, unfettered economy, and rugged individualism, first outlined in the paper "The Significance of the Frontier in American Histoyr" of 1893

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