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Weathering/Erosion, Mass/Volume/Density Early Study Guide - Tanya Yamada p.4 2017
Terms in this set (38)
How do the different types of weathering change rocks and the rate of weathering?
There are various methods of weathering rocks. All of them have different rates of weathering or different speeds of weathering. For example, there is mechanical weathering. Mechanical weathering is the smashing (abrasion) of rocks, chipping off rock fragments each other. This is usually thought of to be a very quick process, taking a matter of seconds as opposed to chemical weathering, where over thousands of years water weathers down larger rocks making them smaller.
When the limestone, sandstone, and granite rocks were weathered, did they all weather at the same speed?
No. However, they were most likely the same weight for everyone in the class. But this was because Sandstone and granite rocks were granted only three minutes to weather at an extremely fast rate. Limestone had a whole lunch break to weather, proving that if it only weathered to the same as the mechanical weathering in all the time, it must have been weathering at an extremely slow rate.
In part one, the rock experienced chemical weathering. In part two, rocks were crashing into each other (abrasion)
which caused mechanical weathering. Which situation (chemical or mechanical) caused more weathering to occur? Remember evidence from the lab to prove. Come up with a reason why this might be true.
The situation that caused more weathering to occur in this specific instance and frame of time was the mechanical weathering. Evidence varies, but a reason why this might be true ties into the third and previous card.
Explain why weathering is considered a destructive force. Be sure to supply proof of this using the results from your experiment.
Weathering is considered a destructive force because it is taking a part / chunk away from a whole structure, which is most likely a rock. Proof varies
What are the different causes of erosion?
Different causes of erosion are erosion by water, wind, gravity, and glaciers.
Referring back to the Erosion Lab with different stations....
Explain how you know that erosion was occurring in all parts of the experiment. Be sure to site evidence from
the experiment as proof.
We know that erosion was occurring in all parts of the experiment because the rock fragments being left behind from the weathering of the rocks moved from one place to another. Evidence may vary.
During the experiment, which type of erosion changed the land the most? Why do you think it caused the
[Insert proof here - answer should ride along the lines of it distributed fragments elsewhere, blah, blah, blah....]
The Grand Canyon was formed by the Colorado River. Answer the questions below.
A. Describes how the Grand Canyon formed
B. Where the rocks that were in the Grand Canyon are now.
C. Defines whether and Erosion
D. Explains how both weathering and erosion work together to form a canyon.
A. Weathering an Erosion over millions of years - the ground was too dry and packed to let water in; therefore huge, gargantuan water reservoirs formed.
B. The rocks that were in the Grand Canyon are now at the Gulf of California.
C. Weathering and Erosion:
Weathering - the breaking down of rocks into sediment
Erosion - moving pieces of sediment from one place to another
D. Weathering breaks down rock fragments and erosion carries them to the Gulf, creating a hole from their destruction.
Referring back to our Grand Canyon Article....
Why is the desert a perfect place for the Grand Canyon to form?
The desert is a perfect place for the Grand Canyon to form because the super packed ground baked by the sound allowed for many floods and collecting of large water bodies which then carried out the weathering and erosion process which carved out the Grand Canyon.
Explain why the Grand Canyon hasn't formed in the Eastern United States.
The Eastern United States has loosely packed soil that is able to soak in water and prevent it from further weathering and eroding rocks around it.
Explain what would have to change in order for the Eastern United States to have a Grand Canyon like the West.
The Eastern United States would have to have an extreme jump in temperature, and have less rainfall.
How should you design a boat to be successful?
Your mass should be as small as possible, and your volume should be as large as possible. (when I say as possible I mean that can support the most marbles without drowning in water.)
What is density? Why do different objects float or sink in different liquids?
Density is a measurement of how much materials are packed into a certain volume of a substance. Different objects will float or sink in different liquids depending on that liquid's density. If the liquid density is less than the object's density, the object will sink. The opposite of this is true as well.
What is the formula for density?
Density = Mass divided by volume
What is weathering?
The breaking of rock is into sediment
What are the six types of mechanical weathering?
4. Temperature Change
How does water/ice weathering work?
--- water pounds on rock (or grinds) with sediment
causing it to break
--- water freezes in the cracks of rocks
(expand/cracks rock - "ice-wedging"
How does Plant weathering work?
--- Plant roots grow in rocks causing the rocks to crack
How does WIND weathering work?
--- Sediments get carried and blown into other rock causing them to chip and break.
How does TEMPERATURE CHANGE weathering work?
--- Expansion and Contraction from temperature
change weakens and cracks rocks.
How does GRAVITY weathering work?
--- The pull of gravity can weaken and crack the
How does Animal weathering work?
--- Burrowing by worms, ants, mice, coyotes, and rabbits move soil particles around
How does water erosion work?
1. Picks up and carries rock and sediment from place to place
e.g. The Grand Canyon
How does WIND erosion work?
1. Picks up sand and small rocks and moves it to a
e.g. Arches National Park
How does GRAVITY erosion work?
--- Pulls rocks doWnhill
e.g. landslides, slumps
How does GLACIER erosion work?
--- Pushes rocks as it moves forward.
e.g. The Great Lakes and mountain valleys like
Yosemite National Park
What slows erosion?
The roots of plants and trees grow into the soil, protecting it from rain and runoff.
3 COMPOSITIONAL LAYERS OF THE EARTH: Crust
1. What kind of layer is the crust (outer or inner)
2. Is this layer thin or thick?
3. What are the two types of crust?
1. The outer layer
2. Thin layer
3. Oceanic and Continental crust
3 COMPOSITIONAL LAYERS OF THE EARTH: What is it based on?
Compositional layers focus on what the layer is made of / consists of.
3 COMPOSITIONAL LAYERS OF THE EARTH: Mantle
1. What percent of Earth's mass does this layer hold?
2. What kind of rock is this layer made of? What unique behavioral qualities do the rocks in this layer exhibit?
1. 67% of the Earth's mass.
2. Made of SOLID rock that is ABLE TO FLOW.
5 PHYSICAL LAYERS OF THE EARTH: What are these layers based on?
These layers are based on the physical state of matter: solid, liquid, or gas.
5 PHYSICAL LAYERS OF THE EARTH: Lithosphere
1. What state of matter is this layer?
2. How far away from the center of the Earth is this layer? How flexible is this layer?
3. What are the pieces that this layer is divided into called?
4. What 2 compositional layers is this layer made of?
5. How dense, compared to the other layers, is the Lithosphere?
2. Outermost rigid layer
3. Divided into pieces called tectonic plates
4. Made of the crust and top of the mantle
5. The least dense of Earth's layers
5 PHYSICAL LAYERS OF THE EARTH: Asthenosphere
1. What is the nickname for this layer?
2. What layer of the mantle is this regarded as? What state of matter is this layer? What is unique about the state of matter displayed in this layer?
1. "weak" sphere
2. The soft layer of the mantle. Made of solid rock that flows very slowly like putty (same rate that fingernails grow)
3. Solid (but may flow like a liquid)
5 PHYSICAL LAYERS OF THE EARTH: Mesosphere
1. What is this layer's nickname?
2. What layer of this mantle is this regarded as?
3. What state of matter is this later?
4. What kind of currents does this layer display?
1. "Middle" sphere
2. Strong lower mantle.
3. Solid rock that flows in circles, heating and cooling.
4. Has convection currents
5 PHYSICAL LAYERS OF THE EARTH: Outer Core
1. What state of matter is this part of the core?
2. How dense, compared to the other layers of the Earth, is the Outer core?
3. How did we determine and come to the conclusion that this layer is liquid?
1. Liquid core
2. Very dense - not the densest
3. Seismic waves
5 PHYSICAL LAYERS OF THE EARTH: Inner Core
1. What state of matter is this part of the core?
2. How dense, compared to the other layers of the Earth, is the Inner core?
3. What does the iron in the inner core cause?
2. Most dense layer
3. Iron causes magnetic fields
3 TYPES OF HEAT TRANSFER: Radiation
How does radiation work?
Radiation transfers energy through empty space
e.g. The sun, a campfire, a lightbulb
3 TYPES OF HEAT TRANSFER: Conduction
How does conduction work?
Conduction transfers energy from one material to another by direct contact
e.g. Burning your hand from leaving a metal
spoon in a boiling hot
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