Ethics Exam 1
Terms in this set (55)
Many people believe that religion is necessary in order for....
-us to be motivated to act morally.
-us to know the difference between right and wrong.
-morality to exist at all.
Agnostics are people who . . .
are not sure whether God exists.
Deists believe that . . .
God exists but does not give us moral guidance.
The fear of hell is often thought to.....
motivate people to do what they believe is right.
According to the text, those who act morally out of fear of God are . . .
doing the right thing for the wrong reasons.
The Divine Command Theory states that . . .
acts are morally required just because they are commanded by God.
In Plato's Euthyphro, Socrates asks . . .
"Do the gods love actions because they are pious, or are actions pious because the gods love them?"
If God's commands make actions right or wrong, then . .
God lacks reasons for his commands.
If one has selected a religious text to rely on, then . . .
one must interpret the text in order to determine what it implies about morality.
According to the textbook, extracting reliable moral knowledge from religious scriptures is . . .
According to natural law theory, an action is right if and only if . . .
it is in accordance with human nature.
A moral agent is an individual who . . .
consistently does the morally right thing.
A conceptual truth is . . .
a claim that can be known simply by understanding it.
According to natural law theory, moral truths are . . .
Rousseau believed that people are inherently ________, whereas Hobbes believed they are inherently ________.
The two most common secular ways of understanding the purposes of things are . . .
the Efficiency Model and the Fitness Model.
To say that something enhances fitness is to say that it . . .
increases one's success at survival and reproduction.
According to the text, nature . . .
sets the outer bounds of what morality can require.
Moral laws clearly differ from laws of nature in that . . .
they tell us what we ought to do as opposed to what we will do.
The story of the Ring of Gyges suggests that when people are free to do whatever they want without consequences, they tend to behave . . .
Psychological egoism is the theory that . . .
everything people do is fundamentally motivated by self-interest.
Altruism is . . .
a direct desire to benefit others for their own sake.
Psychological egoism is . . .
a descriptive theory of human motivation.
If psychological egoism is true, then . . .
-we cannot be morally obligated to behave altruistically.
-most of what is commonly taken for granted about morality would be mistaken.
If all of our actions are motivated by our strongest desire, then . . .
psychological egoism is true only if all of our strongest desires are for self-interest.
According to the text, the Argument from Expected Benefit . . .
shows that psychological egoism is true.
A psychological egoist would claim that giving up something you want for the sake of a loved one . . .
is actually a self-interested action.
According to the text, the existence of a guilty conscience . . .
is evidence against psychological egoism.
According to the text, the evidence available . . .
suggests, but does not prove, that psychological egoism is false.
According to ethical egoism, conflicts between self-interest and morality . . .
The fact that ethical egoism requires actions that seem to be paradigm cases of immorality . . .
shows that we should accept ethical egoism only if there are very strong arguments in its favor.
Psychological egoism . . .
is one, but not the only, possible source of support for ethical egoism
If libertarians are correct that all of our duties derive from consent and reparation, then . . .
ethical egoism is false.
The Best Argument for Ethical Egoism states that . . .
if there is good reason to do something, then doing it must make you better off.
If ethical egoism is true, then everyone has the right . . .
To pursue self-interest
Ethical egoism . . .
-violates many widely shared moral beliefs.
-cannot allow for the existence of genuine moral rights.
-arbitrarily elevates the interests of some people over those of others.
If ethical egoism is true, then I should regard the interests of others as having . . .
no moral importance.
Moral skepticism is . . .
the view that there are no objective moral standards.
Moral nihilists believe that . . .
-there are no moral truths.
- facts exist but values do not.
Someone is definitely a cultural relativist if he or she believes that . . .
the guiding ideals of a society determine what is right or wrong.
According to ethical subjectivism, whether an act is right or wrong is determined by . . .
If ethical subjectivism is true, then one's deepest moral commitments are . . .
If cultural relativism is true, then the moral values of our culture are . . .
no better or worse than the moral values of other cultures.
According to ethical subjectivism, . . .
things are good simply because we like them.
If cultural relativism is true, then . . .
individuals can make moral progress, but cultures cannot.
If subjectivism does not generate contradictions, then moral disagreement . . .
According to ideal observer subjectivism, an action is morally right if . . .
I would approve of it if I were fully informed and perfectly rational.
The two main types of moral nihilism are . . .
expressivism and the error theory.
Both error theorists and objectivists believe that . . .
moral judgments are attempts to describe the moral features of things.
Both expressivists and objectivists believe that . . .
there is no fundamental error at the heart of our moral practice.
Both error theorists and expressivists believe that . . .
no moral claims are true.
Error theorists deny the existence of . . .
If expressivism is true, then it is impossible to . . .
make a valid moral argument.
According to expressivism, amoralists are . . .
Expressivists cannot account for the existence of . . .
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