106 terms

Women Studies Final

implies putting men on center and confusing maleness with humanity
A society dominated by Males and all important decisions are made by Males
the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men
feminist backlash
anger or resentment towards feminist
Liberal Feminism Startegy
Working with the system for change
Primary focus of a third wave feminist agenda
sexuality and identity
The Equal Pay Act of 1963
prohibits sex-based wage discrimination between men and women in the same establishment who perform jobs that require substantially equal skill, effort and responsibility under similar working condition
The United Nations reconizes crimes against women
as a hate crime
the fear and dislake of lesbians and gay men
The hatred of women
A person that displays a lack of gender differentiation or a blending of gender
Gender Socialization
the process by which we learn gender
Sexual Self Schemas
Cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of the self
Men are associated with
Air and Spirit
Women are associated with
Nature and the earth
Biiological Determinism
Biology determines culture
Disciplinary Beauty Practices
Women are not forced to take part in but Women participate in to maintain standards of beauty, Cost women time, energy and money
Young Women 15-25
Most susceptible age group to having a eating disorder
the process wherby normal functions of the body come to be seen as indicative of disease
Native American Women
are among the largest group of women in the U.S. Society who have been sterilized against their will
Hyde Ammendment and Suprem Court Ruling ( Beal v Doe, 1977)
Decide whether medicaid funds would be spent on abortion
Defense of Marriage Act 1996
Federal law defining marriage as man-woman & declaring that no state is forced to recognize same-sex marriage (unconstitutional exception to full faith & credit clause?)
Double Standard of Conduct
boys tend to be given more freedom in the family than girls to explore and experience their sexuality
The fact that companies provide better and more flexible family options for their higher paid employess
Mythical Norm
white, middle-class, heterosexual ,abled, thin, and a young adult, which is normalized or taken for granted such that we often forget that whites racialized and men are gendered.
bootstrap myth
That if people are properly motivated and willing to work hard, can pull themselves up by their bootstraps.
discimination against a person based on his/her failure to realize current beauty ideals
the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races
a right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group (especially a hereditary or official right)
Systemic and/or individual prejudice against or oppression of people on the basis of their lesser wealth, education, or social status.
prejudice and discrimination based on a person's age
a form of discriminatory behavior against persons with mental or physical limitations
compulsory heterosexuality
refers to the idea that being heterosexual is a persons default sexuality
the biological distinction between females and males
The characteristics that a person portrays in order to show whether he or she is feminine or masculine
gender performance
the sense of acting a certain way to show masculine or feminine qualities
an emphasis on male strength, high sexuality, and dominance
double bind
one whose sense of gender identity is at odds witht heir physical sex, but they have not sought surgery
sexual scripts
sets of implicit rules that specify proper sexual behavior for a person in a given situation, varying with the person's gender, age, religion, social status, and peer group
sexual self schemas
ideas and beliefs about sexual aspects of the self that are established from the past and present experiences, and guide sexual feelings/behavior
the prohibition on interracial marriage, cohabitation, or sexual interaction. one of the Black Codes
feelings of sexual attraction to members of the same sex- almost always precedes lesbian and gay activity by several years
the assumption of heterosexuality as the norm or normative behavior in any given setting
disciplinary beauty practices
everyday routine behaviors that maintain the body (shaving, makeup, etc) that are taken for granted disciplinary actions because of social control
Women's bodies are seen as things/objects; women are bodies, not people. Turning a person into a thing is often the first step toward justifying violence against her. Women are dehumanized; not life-like. A woman is presented as a body, not a person; she has no personality.
definition of behavior as a medical problem and mandating the medical profession to provide some kind of treatment for it
environmental racism
decisions that restrict certain people or groups of people to polluted or degraded environments on the basis of race.
Forced Sterilization
government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. part of eugenics programs intended to prevent the reproduction and multiplication of members of population considered to be carriers of defective genetics traits. crime against humanity. first country to concertedly undertake forced sterilization programs for the purpose of eugenics. black women were sterilized against their will in many states, often without their knowledge while they were in a hospital for other reasons (e.g. childbirth) native american women first state Michigan in 1897.
the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
masculine privilege in families
traditional family form where males have more access to resources and power
comparable worth
the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
horizontal segregation
The tendency for occupations mainly held by men to have substantially higher pay rates and status as compared to those of mainly held by women.
vertical segregation
Vertical sex segregation illustrates the ideology of male supremacy and the cultural assumption that men are the better leaders and should be the ones in charge. In a vertical sense, women are not present in the apex that consists of the corporate elite, upper management and professional occupations. As a result, there have been more consorted efforts to move women into these occupations, including engineering, lawyers and doctors.
glass ceiling
a ceiling based on attitudinal or organizational bias in the work force that prevents minorities and women from advancing to leadership positions
glass escalator
the process by which men in traditionally female professions benefit from an unfair rapid rise within an organization
glass precipice
Process where women are encouraged into leadership positions in failing organizations and companies and are disproportionately set up to fail professionally.
Quid Pro quo
Sexual harassment in which employment outcomes are linked to the individual granting sexual favors.
hostile work environment
a form of sexual harassment in which unwelcome and demeaning sexually related behavior creates an intimidating and offensive work environment
double day of work
working a job then coming home and working in the home.
second shift
the double burden- work outside the home followed by child care and housework- that many women face and few men share equitably
pink collar
jobs traditionally filled by women; service occupations, little pay or prestige (waitress, secretary, teacher, etc.)
male gaze
describes the way in which women become objects of sexual objects in films and other media; to look at and judge someone's appearance is active, and therefore masculine, but to be the object of that gaze and judgement is passive, and therefore feminine
sexual terrorism
The threat of rape and sexual assault that controls a woman's life whether or not she is actually physically or sexually violated
the crime of forcing a woman to submit to sexual intercourse against her will
sexual abuse
a statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat
sexual harrasment
comments, gestures, or physical contact of sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome.
the repeated following, harassment, or threatening of an individual to frighten or cause him or her harm
rape spectrum
Entitlements associated with masculinity produce a range. All sexist behaviors are arranged along a continuum from unexamined feelings of superiority over women, to rape at the other end.
Ex: sexist jokes at the front of the spectrum and rape/femicide at the end.
global women trafficking
women being sold to brothels for mens sexual pleasures. Women are seen as a commodity and not people
forced prostitution
trafficking of women, largest slave trade in history; becoming a growing problem, forcing adults or children to engage in sex acts against their will
US Violence Against Women Act
The Act provides $1.6 billion toward investigation and prosecution of violent crimes against women, imposes automatic and mandatory restitution on those convicted, and allows civil redress in cases prosecutors chose to leave unprosecuted.
an adverse reaction to some political or social occurrence
environmental justice
A legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards.
Convention for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women; adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979, came into force in September 1981; the United States remains the only developed state which has not ratified the convention
the process whereby normal functions of the body come to be seen as indicative of disease
Native American Women
are among the largest group of women in U.S. society who have been sterilized against their will
Women living at or near poverty
are 3 times as likely to be in poor or fair health than high income women
Roe vs Wade
removed the states ban on abortion
Comstock Laws
Regulates contraception
Hyde Ammendment and Beal vs Doe Ruling
gave states the right to decide whether medicaid would be spen on abortion
the supreme court removed the ban on contraceptives for married persons
The supreme court ruling that removed the ban on abortion occurred
Househols headed by women
have about half the income and less than a third of the wealth of other US families
The defense of marriage act
was passed in 1996
In US Families power is assigned
primarily according to gender and age
Double Standard of Sexual Conduct
Boys tend to be given more freedom in the family than girls to explore and experience their sexuality
Women perform
2/3's of household labor
Women earn
76% of mens median salaries
1993 Ruling on Sexual Harassment said
women did not have to prove they sufferd harm
Women of Color earn
64% of mens median salaries
As of 2005
there were 9 fortune 500 women presidents or CEO"s
Unionized women workers earn
31% more than nonunionized women workers
Women gain
14 hours of additional housework per week when they get married
is generally considered an appropriate instrument for a women to play
Laura Mulvey
Identfied the concept of the male gaze
is a kind of date rape drug
10% of all sexual abuse
involves a husband or ex-husband
Stranger Rapes
Are more likely to be reported than acquaintance rapes
1/5 high school girls
report being physically or sexually abused by a boyfriend
Direct Incest
bouncing a child against an erection
1/4 women in college campuses
have experienced sexual violence of some kind
of rapes occuring on campus had alcohol involved
Rape Myths
Women are partly to blame
Reports happen less frequently than often
75% of sexual assaults
are commited by a friend, acquaintance, husband or family member
Theme for femenist inspired integrity
Rights for personal choice