57 terms

MUSIC 110 TEST #2

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Alleluia
composer: anonymous
date: unknown
genre: gregorian chant
purpose: sacred
style: monophonic & a capella
O Successors
composer: Hildegard
date: 12th century
genre: gregorian chant
purpose: sacred
style: monophonic & a capella
Estampie
composer: anonymous
date: unknown
genre: banjo instrument
purpose: secular
style: polyophonic & no voice
Puis qu'en oubi
composer: Machaut
date: 1300-1377
genre: rondeau
purpose: secular
style: polyophonic & a capella
Notre Dame Mass
composer: Machaut
date: 1300-1377
genre: gregorian chant
purpose: sacred
style: ployophonic mass (all men)
Ave Maria
composer: des Prez
date: 1475
genre: motet
purpose: sacred
style: polyophonic, a capella & immitative voice teqhnique
Pope Marcellus Mass
composer: Palestrina
date: 1562-1563
genre: motet
purpose: sacred
style: polyophonic & a capella (men and women)
As Vesta Was From Descending
composer: Weelkes
date: 1601
genre: madrigal
purpose: secular
style: a capella & vocal decending and vocal ascending (word painting)
Tu Se' Morta
composer: Montenverdi
date: 1607
genre: opera (Orfero)
purpose: secular
style: homophonic textures
Dido's Lament
composer: Purcell
date: 1689
genre: opera (Dido and Aeneas)
purpose: secular
style: melancoly mood
Gregorian Chant
-sacred Latin texts sung in melody and monophony
-convey a clam, otherwordly, spiritual and floating quality
Guido d'Arezzo
developed the 4 line staff system as means to show the distance between intervals (995-1050AD)
Hildegard Von Bingen
1098-1179
wrote the first noted example of morality play (modern drama) named Ordo Virtutem
Leonin & Perotin
polyophonic sacred music
Leonin: 1135-1201
perfected a form of polyphony called Organum at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris
Perotin: 1198-1236
expanded on Leonin
Organum
a plainsong (chant) melody sung in the lower voice, called the tenor, with a freely moving ornamental melody sung above it, called the duplum
Secular Music
performed by two different types of people; the troubadours or trouveres and the jongleurs
Troubadours or Trouveres
nobles, knights or even kings
music based on poetry they wrote about unrequited love
Jongleurs
lower class of traveling entertainers
music based on major events and heroic deeds. they danced, juggleded and told storys aswell
Motet
more fluid then the organum, could employ a secular and sacred text or both
Polyophonic Mass
cohesive unit from multiple portions of the Catholic mass
Fixed Forms
more rhythmically structured music, employing repeating patters
Machaut
1300-1377
thought as the greatest composer of the Middle Ages
worked for the Cathedral Notre Dame in Reims
both sacred and secular
Messe de Notre Dame
conisdered the greatest work of the MA
first time a mass was composed for as an organized whole
Music Advancements during Renaissance
expansions of existing forms
invention of imitative melody and national forms
inclusion of instru. accompaniment in vocal music
des Prez
1455-1521
most famous for his sacred music, especially the musical diversity he brought to the Polyphonic Mass
Cantus Firmus Mass
created by Machaut
The melody of the cantus firmus would appear in one of the voices, usually the tenor, with the other voices built around it, or sharing it
Imitation/Parody Mass
the composer uses imitative development in order to expand upon the original idea
Paraphrase Mass
the melody does not appear in its original form, or in its entirety, but is paraphrased. It can appear in any of the voices and in any length, combined with original compositional material
Renaissance Motet
a polyphonic vocal genre that can be both sacred or secular
Palestrina
the most important composer of the Counter-Reformation. Came to be known as the "savior of church music."
Counter-Reformation
Council of Trent 1545-1563
church music should not distract from text, should not use inappropriate instruments, musicians should not have irreverent attitudes
Renaissance Secular Music
as education expanded to other classes, more people became trained in reading music, singing and playing instruments
The invention of the printing press (1460) meant music could spread around much faster and to different regions
French Chanson
french secular song based on the poetry in the trouvere tradition but in the polyphonic style of a motet
Because Chansons were secular they were written with a distinct rhythmic feel
English Madrigal
almost always sung a capella. A common technique in Madrigal writing was word painting. This is where the music literally mimics the text in some way
English Lute Songs
a solo song with instrumental accompaniment, usually lute or viol. Came into fashion after the Madrigal
Rise of Instrumental Music
instruments began doubling vocal line, and eventually replacing the voice altogether
Instruments of the Renaissance
lute -> guitar
viol -> violin
wind instruments:
shawms -> oboes
transverse flutes -> metal flutes
cornetts -> trumpets
sackbutts -> trombones
keyboard instruments:
clavichord -> strings struck by hammer
virginal -> strings plucked
Grand Concerto
a musical form that bridged the gap between the Renaissance and the Baroque period. It was a large scale Motet that was orchestrated for solo voices, chorus and instruments
Idiomatic Writing
the development of new instruments meant more musical cords for composers to write specificly for
Homophonic Texture
music where there is one line of interest (melody line) with an accompanying figure meant to support the melody as background
Basso Continuo
a musical line formed by two instruments, commonly the harpsichord and cello, that would support the melody line by playing chords in a rhythmic fashion
Ostinato
a short, repeated musical pattern that occurs throughout an entire piece, often in the bass line (Basso Ostinato)
Consonance
happy chords that sound good together
Dissonance
bad sounding chords when they are together
Baroque Musical Forms
the Baroque period introduced the idea of movements, where a piece of music was in multiple parts but were performed together as one piece
Baroque Orchestra
large instrumental ensembles built around members of the violin family became popular
Baroque Musical Genres
Opera
Oratorio
Overture
Cantata
Sonata
Concerto
Orchestral Suite
Opera
A play set to music where all the lines are sung
Libretto
the text of an opera, often written by a poet/play-write in collaboration with the composer
Overture
opening orchestral work that sets up the opera
Recitative
means of communicating the plot through heightened speech. Usually with quickly pronounced words and minimal instrumental accompaniment
Aria
a song within an opera that is meant to be a musical showcase for one singer to be expressive
Chorus
a group of singers singing together in an opera, usually after or during an important moment in the plot
Humanism
interest in human achievement
Monteverdi
1567-1643
in 1607 the Monteverdi's opera Orfeo is first performed. This considered to be the first "modern" opera.
he helped bridge the gap between the Renaissance and the Baroque
Orfeo
based on one of the most popular Greek myths to set to music, Orpheus and the Underworld. The character of Orpheus is the greatest musician in Greek lore, able to entrance humans and Gods alike
Purcell
1659-1695
At 18 became composer to the king's string orchestra and was soon after organist at Westminster Abbey. Wrote masterworks in all genres of the day; sacred music, secular choral music, instrumental chamber music and secular songs and music for the stage