Organic Chem Pt. 1 Vocabulary

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Terms in this set (...)

Organic Compound
covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
Catenation
the covalent bonding of an element to itself to form chains or rings
Hydrocarbon
composed of only carbon and hydrogen; they are the simplest organic compounds
Isomer
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures
Structural Formula
indicates the number and types of atoms present in a molecule and also shows the bonding arrangement of the atoms
Structural Isomer
also called "constitutional isomer," are isomers in which the atoms are bonded together in different orders
Geometric Isomer
isomers in which the order of atom bonding is the same but the arrangement of atoms in space is different
Saturated Hydrocarbon
hydrocarbons in which each carbon atom in the molecule forms four single covalent bonds with other atoms
Alkane
hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds
Cycloalkane
alkanes in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring, or cyclic, structure
Alkyl Group
groups of atoms that are formed when one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane molecule
Natural Gas
a fossil fuel composed primarily of alkanes containing one to four carbon atoms
Petroleum
a complex mixture of different hydrocarbons that varies greatly in composition
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
hydrocarbons in which not all carbon atoms have four single covalent bonds
Alkene
hydrocarbons that contain double covalent bonds
Alkyne
hydrocarbons with triple covalent bonds
Aromatic Hydrocarbon
hydrocarbons that have six-membered carbon rings and delocalized electrons
Benzene
the primary aromatic hydrocarbon
Functional Group
an atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound
Alcohol
organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups
Alkyl Halide
organic compounds in which one or more halogen atoms-fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine-are substituted for one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon
Ether
organic compounds in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen
Aldehyde
organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to the carbon atom at the end of a carbon-atom chain
Ketone
organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to the carbon atoms within the chain
Amine
organic compounds that can be considered to be derivatives of ammonia, NH3
Carboxylic Acid
organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group
Ester
organic compounds that have carboxylic acid groups in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl group