Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (58)
Counter Current Heat Exchange
Reduces surface temperature of exposed body parts by using the flow of blood in opposite directions of each other.
Increasing radiant heat absorption. Warming or wing drying. Common in anhingas and cormorants.
Reduces exposed surface area; lowers convective heat loss. Common in small birds.
Initiated at the lower critical temperature.
Metabolizing fat directly to produce heat, not well known in birds.
Large short-term temperature drop for several hours or days when voluntary activity is impaired; widespread in small temperate birds.
Long term drop in body temperature and activities. Only one bird known to do this.
Seasonal, round-trip movements to improve survival and reproduction. Not just north to south or vice versa but can take place over small distances.
Photoperiod (day length)
What things affect the timing of migration?
Migratory birds hit a headwind while migrating and when the come to land they are completely exhausted and don't get spooked easily.
That you need to eat during the day.
What do you have to do if you are migrating at night?
What are the four flyways in north America?
When the exact same bird visits the same migration spot year after year.
Picking a stationary star to base their navigation.
Pick out a constellation.
Height of the sun at noon at 40 N latitude
Polarization of light
Some birds can see the earth's magnetism.
How do birds navigate?
Owner has first access to resources when obtained by defending them physically or otherwise.
Slow developmentally, born with no feathers and blind and must have a parent care for this type of young.
Advanced development when born or at an early age, born able to see, drink and with feathers.
Development of flight feathers.
Mating system where the pair bonds last only until copulation. If post-hatch care is needed, the mother provides.
One male breeds with multiple females but the females don't.
Looks the pair are faithful to each other but the females and males both breed with other mates.
When the pair of birds are breeding only with each other where all of the offspring have only those two parents genetic make-up.
Type of mating system where the female breeds with multiple males but the males don't. Very rare, less that 1%, where males incubate and rear their young. This type of mating system usually occurs in species with very high nest failure rates.
Male Dominance Polygyny
The most impressive male gets the most girls; competition for status in communal displays.
Display territory competition for female mates where the center of the display is the most dominant male.
Polygyny Threshold Model
This is the theory that the female should become 2nd mate of a high quality male if it will allow her to mate more than a first mate male of low quality.
Durable pair bond with one member of the opposite sex.
Birds whose young are reared in a nest.
Birds whose young leave the nest soon after hatching.
Copulations with individuals other than your mate or social partner. Reported in monogamous, polygynous, and polyandrous species.
Increased fitness for males (more quantity)
Increased genetic diversity in offspring for females. (quality)
What are some potential benefits of extra-pair copulators?
Where multiple females or males breed within the same colony. Breeding privileges are inherited. (acorn woodpecker)
System of egg-laying where the female of one species lays an egg in another species' nest so the species who built the nest has to raise the other species' young.
This is brood parasitism but within the same species.
Parent vs. Offspring
Male vs. Female
What types of conflicts might a cooperative breeding colony have?
A defended area; An area where you have primary or first access to resources on your patch of land.
What is the most common definition of territoriality? What is a better definition?
Territory is smaller in land size than home range.
What is the difference between territory and home range?
By the resources that are defended such as, food and nest, just mating and nesting, nesting only, pairing and mating (lekking), roosting only or winter territories.
How are territories classified?
Must be defensible (cost outweighs the benefits)
Must be a limiting resource (limits survival and or reproduction)
What two things are needed for something to be considered a resource?
They have a small olfactory lobe.
Why is smell poor in most birds?
Petrel; (common in honeyguides) who locate their food by smell.
This is an organ with a large olfactory epithelium. (Tubenose)
This is important in tactile feeders who locate their food by touch.
Mechanoreception organ with pressure receptors that are abundant in bills and tongues of birds that use tactile feeding.
This allows bill opening when the tip of the bill is buried. Common in sandpiper.
This is a sign of higher intelligence. Originally thought to be in only mammals (primates) but can be found in at least six bird species.
This is an expandable pouch of the esophagus for food storage, it stores and softens food before entry into the stomach, the size of this organ is related to food size/passage rates.
This is the tube to the crop, which is muscular and usually has mucous glands for lubrication. Its diameter is related to the size of food eaten.
This digestive organ is anterior and it secretes acids and enzymes to chemically break down food. Also called the glandular stomach.
This digestive organ is posterior and has internal keratinization and is used in mechanical digestion.
The end of the digestive system and beginning of the reproductive system.
Most of the chemical digestion and absorption occurs here. The organs anatomy is the same as reptiles and opposite of mammals.
The intestines of birds have their circular muscle lying ____________ of their ______________ muscles.
Since gut length is correlated with diet, meat and fruit eaters have a _________ intestine, where granivores and herbivores have a ____________ intestine.
Caecum; Large; Absorption; Cellulose
This is a blind pouch at the junction of the small and large intestines; it is ______________ in primitive birds and herbivores; _____________ of water and proteins occurs here and bacterial digestion of ____________ (fermentation) occurs here in herbivores.
Food requirements are ___________ in small birds.
Bird rate of digestion is generally ____________ than in mammals.
Caecal digestion of cellulose is generally ______________ than digestion of meat or fruit.
They are mostly herbivores.
They eat mostly leaves rather than fruit and flowers.
They have claws at the bends of their wings to climb before they fledge.
The use foregut fermentation in their crop. (only known bird species in the world to do this)
How is the Hoatzin (pronounced Wat-Sun) unusual?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Ornithology Exam 4
Animal Behavior Final Exam
Evolution and Adaptation in Animals
Intro to Human Evolution Exam 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Fish Test 2