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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Terms in this set (16)
Polish scholar, On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, heliocentric universe based on observations rather than appeal to traditional authority (i.e. the bible and classical authors)
German mathematician and astronomer, used observations (and analytical geometry) to calculate orbits of planets around the sun, elliptical rather than perfect circles of Copernicus (and Ptolemy).
Italian scientist, perfected telescope and confirmation of heliocentric universe by observation of moons revolving around Jupiter. Tried for heresy by Catholic church.
Principia, laws of motion and universal gravitation, i.e. calculus and gravity. All motion can be measure and described mathematically, from largest planets/stars to smallest objects on earth (i.e. falling apples).
Irish chemist (father of "modern chemistry), pioneer of modern experimental/scientific method. "Boyle's Law": relationship of volume to pressure of gas inversely proportional if temperature is constant. Also, imagined all matter is composed of tiny and irresolvable "particles" (precursor of modern atomic theory) Charter member of the Royal Society.
Renaissance humanist, classical scholar, Greek/Latin editions of the Bible, called for translations into the vernacular. Dutch priest, remained Catholic over and against Luther, but still called for reform within the Church.
French philosopher, mathematician, stressed scientific method, appeal to reason/logic rather than traditional authority in finding the truth, only "provable" knowledge. Discourse on Method, "doubt" as first principle (as opposed to "faith"), cogito ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am")
English philosopher during English Civil Wars. Leviathan, people's lives "nasty, brutish and short" in the "state of nature" (war of all against all). To escape this condition, people enter into "social contract" with government by which they give up their freedom for an organized society. Government (and specifically absolutist monarchy) was the only way to ensure orderly society.
Two Treatises on Government all people should be equal and have by "natural law" the right to seek "health, liberty and possessions." All people have natural rights. No king could take this away. But people gather together into groups and need someone to enforce laws, so they join together and agree to a contract (social contract) that gives some (the government) power to rule over others, but always and only by the consent of the governed. The governed (i.e. the people) decide how much power this should be. Kings are subject to the rule of law like everyone else. Primary purpose of government is to protect the "natural" rights that people already have.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
The Social Contract, people naturally good, corrupted by the evils of society and unequal distribution of property, some government regulation necessary but minimal, people can improve and perfect themselves through education.
François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
French philosopher (philosophe), application of reason (i.e. scientific method) could be applied to both understand and improve society. Biting wit and satire to expose hypocrisy of French aristocracy and Catholic Church. Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion, i.e. "separation of church and state."
Baron de Montesquieu
French intellectual and historian who in The Spirit of the Laws argued for a separation of powers (executive, legislative, judicial) based on his reading of ancient and medieval history. Critique of Absolutism (i.e. absolute monarchy).
British social critic, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, apply notion of free and equal rights (natural rights) to women as well as men. Mother or Mary Shelley (author of Frankenstein).
Sir Thomas More
English Renaissance Humanist, counselor to Henry VIII until beheaded for treason for failing to support English Reformation. Sainted by Catholic Church. Utopia contrasts the current ills afflicting European society with vision of "ideal" society governed by reason (religious toleration, etc).
French Protestant Reformer, the Institutes, predestination, sets up "theocracy" in Geneva, government run by Protestant church leaders: chosen people entrusted by God to build a truly Christian society. Ideas controversial and set off wars with Catholics and other Protestants.
English philosopher, scientist and supporter of the scientific method, and "Empiricism" (i.e. we learn about the world through experimentation). Influential on the later Royal Society.
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