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Ap psychology Chapter 6 Learning
Terms in this set (79)
A lasting change in behavior or mental process that results from experience
Learning not to respond to the repeated presentation of a stimulus.
Mere exposure effect
A learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed.
Forms of learning, such as classical conditioning, that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses.
A form of behavioral learning in which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex produced by another stimulus.
Any stimulus that produces no conditioned response prior to learning. When it is brought into a conditioning experiment, the researcher will call it a a conditioned stimulus (CS). The assumption is that some conditioning occurs after even one pairing of the CS and UCS
Unconditional stimulus (US)
In classical condition, the stimulus that elicits an unconditional response.
Unconditional response (UR)
In classical condition, the response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning.
The initial learning stage in classical conditioning, during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response. Customarily, in a conditioning experiment, the neutral stimulus is called a condition stimulus when it is first paired with an unconditioned stimulus (USC)
Conditioned Response (CR)
In classical conditioning, a response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditional stimulus.
Extinction (In classical conditioning)
The weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus.
The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay.
The extension of learned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.
A change in response to one stimulus but not to stimuli that are similar.
A pattern of erratic behavior resulting from a demanding discrimination learning task, typically one that involves aversive stimuli.
A biological tendency in which an organism learns after a single experience to avoid a food with a certain taste, if eating it is followed by illness.
An observable, voluntary behavior that an organism emits to operate on, or have an effect on, the environment.
A form of behavioral learning in which the probability of a response is changed by its consequences that is, by the stimuli that follow the response.
Law of effect.
The idea that responses that produced desirable results would b learned, or "stamped" into the organism.
A condition( involving either the presentation or removal of a stimulus) that occurs after a response and strengthens that response.
A stimulus presented after a response and increasing the probability of that response happening again.
The removal of an unpleasant of aversive stimulus, contingents on a particular behavior. Compare with punishment
A boxlike apparatus that can be programmed to deliver reinforces and punished contingents on an animals behavior. The operant chamber is often called a skinner box
Relationships between a response and the changes in stimulaton that follow the response
A type of reinforcement schedule by which all correct responses are reinforced
An operant learning technique in which a new behavior is produced by reinforcing responses that are similar to the desired response.
A type of reinforcement schedule by which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced; also called partial reinforcement
Extinction( in operant conditioning)
A process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement (compare with extinction in classical conditioning)
Schedule of reinforcement
Programs specifying the frequency and timing of reinforcements
A program by which reinforcement depends on the number of correct responses
A program by which reinforcement depends on the time interval elapsed since the last reinforcement.
Fixed ratio (FR) schedule
Programs by which reinforcement is contingent on a certain, unvarying number of responses. Fast rate of responses and fastest extinction without reinforcement. Example: factory giving pay for every 6 cars you sell - right before reinforcement, responses peak, but after reinforcement, there is a dip in responses (pat on the back dip and victory dance dip)=taking a break from hard work
Variable ratio (VR) schedule
Reinforcement programs by which the number of responses requires for a reinforcement varies from trial to trial. All about the odds. On average, there is reinforcement a certain number every random response) Example: VEGAS and slot machines
Fixed interval (FI) schedule
Programs by which reinforcement is contingent on a certain, fixed time period. Scalloped (like VR) with a dip after reinforcement and a peak before. Reinforcement is every certain amount of time. Example: studying. There's a peak in performance before the test day, but in the next 2 weeks, there's a dip in responses because you slack off and know there is no test for another week.
Variable Interval (VI) schedules
Programs by which the time period between reinforcements varies from trial to trial. Random reinforcement every certain amount of time. Least successful with responses because you don't know when reinforcement is. Example: Having a test about every 7 days. You have a steady rate of studying, but less responses because you don't know when exactly the test will be and would rather do other things than study.
Reinforces such as food and sex, that have an innate basic because of their biological value to an organism.
Conditioned Reinforces (Secondary reinforces)
Stimuli, such as money or tokens, that acquire their reinforcing power by a learned association with primary reinforces.
A therapeutic method, based on operant conditioning, by which individuals are rewarded with tokens, which act as secondary reinforcers. The tokens can be redeemed for a variety of rewards and privileges
The concept developed by David Premack, that a more proffered activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity
A aversive stimulus which, occurring after a response, diminishes the strength of that response (compare with negative reinforcement)
The application of an aversive stimulus after a response
Omission training (negative punishment)
The removal of an appetitive stimulus after a response, leading to a decrease in behavior.
A form of cognitive learning, originally described by the gestalt psychologists in which problem solving occurs by means of a sudden reorganization of perceptions
A mental representation of physical space.
A form of cognitive learning in which new responses are acquired after watching others behavior and the consequences of their behavior.
A biological process, involving physical changes that strengthen the synapse in groups of nerve cells, which is believed to be the neural basis of learning.
A neutral stimulus becomes a CS paired with another CS and then elicits a CR (CS+CS=CR)
When Pavlov's dogs distinguished between the oval meaning a shock and a circle meaning food. When the symbols were gradually made unclear, the dogs could not do this action and developed neurotic behavior.
Uncertainty and neurotic behavior that is caused by not being able to discriminate between stimulus.
APA member, behaviorist, President of John's Hopkins University that studied classical conditioning (from the idea of Pavlov) and did experiment with Little Albert and put it on film and never did counter conditioning with the child, which is now seen as an unethical experiment
John Watson and Rosalie
Had an affair-seen as unacceptable and had to resign from his teaching position and all roots of psychology - he went into advertising and used classical conditioning (esp. sex and songs) to elicit good feelings in customers - he made a lot of $ from this
Close together in time (How the CS and UCS must be presented in order to get the best aquisition)
Only a short interval between the CS and UCS is required (second or less) example is blink of an eye
Visceral Responses (Heart Rate and Digestion, Etc.)
Longer intervals are required between CS and UCS (5-15 secs)
Longer intervals between the CS and UCS are required (seconds to minutes)
Long time delays between CS and UCS to get response (hours)
Russian scientist that did not like subjectively studying mental processes (structuralists and functionalists). He studied digestion in dogs and one the Noble Peace Prize in the study of saliva (the first stage in digestion. He worked for 3 decades and did 532 experiments to study classical conditioning, spontaneous recovery, extinction, generalization, and discrimination.
Watson's experiment in which he used classical conditioning to elicit fear in a baby. It only took 7 times of presenting the white lab rat with the loud sound of the steel bar struck with a mallet in order for this baby to be scared of the rabbit/rat. Watson also used a santa mask, fur coat, dog, and rabbit as CS's.
Classical Conditioning with Sailors
CS=gong sound on ships USC=the battle and bloodiness and death UCR=fear and danger. Later in lives, sailors gave strong autonomic reaction (CR) to only the sound of the gong (CS).
Mary Cover Jones
Used Little Peter and classical conditioning to do counter conditioning and remove fear of a white rabbit from a child. She used therapeutic strategies, combining extinction of the conditioned fear response with learning a relaxed response to the CS.
John Garcia and Robert Koelling
Studied classical conditioning with Food Aversions. Used rats as an example: rats would not drink the water that had been in chambers where radiation previously occured, because they were made nauseous by the radiation, but thought it was the food.
Contiguous time between the CS and UCS = hours. You only have to pair them ONCE to get the aversion. In evolution, it has developed because those who got illness from eating/drinking something poisonous and never ate that food/drank that drink again survived.
Gradual Exposure Theory
Gradually presenting a phobia and using relaxation exercises
In Vivo Therapy
Making you gradually face your fears. For Little Peter, the NS was the rabbit. Candy, cake, and ice cream were the UCS=a good feelings (UCR). Eventually, the rabbit becomes the CS, which elicits the CR(good feeling).
Creating a fear hierarchy from imagination/images and using relaxation exercises to slowly make your way up to the most feared thing.
Real life images, videos and computer simulations that are used to counter condition fear.
Stimuli that tells you when to do a certain response for a desired reinforcement (Green light for rats told them to press lever for food) (Lights on gas stations at night telling you to get gas when the tank is empty)
Reinforcement vs Punishment
Psychologists and Pediatricians say that reinforcement is better and more successful. Only use punishment when it is severely needed.
Operant vs Classical Conditioning
C: stimuli precedes response, O:consequences follow response
C:behavior is a response to past reflexes, O:new behavior is caused by a new stimuli (reinforcer)
C:ends with a response, O:stimulus follows response
C:elicits the same response to new stimuli, O:encourages new behaviors
C:withhold USC=extinction, O: withhold reinforcer=extinction
C:Behavior is elicited by stimuli (can't make a dog salivate), O:behavior is emitted by the organism (can't make a dog eat)
Came up with the idea of insight learning with his experiment on chimps in Canary Islands. Said that organisms do problem solving caused by sudden reorganization of perceptions, which causes new behavior.
Discovered cognitive maps through his experiments with rats running through mazes. Even without reinforcement and with flooded mazes, the rats found the quickest way to food using their mental maps.
Rats wandering around freely for hours with no reinforcements later found the most efficient route to the food faster than rats that had not previously seen the maze.
Discovered observational learning with the experiment with adults hitting the BoBo doll and children imitating them.
Said that the CS's crucial feature is in its informativeness (its value in predicting the onset of the UCS). So, in taste aversions, the taste becomes a warning of an illness.
Said that the learner will form a CS-CR connection only if the CS provides unique info. about the USC. His experiment gave an aversive stimuli (shock) before warning cues (lights, tones, tastes). The animals paid the most attention to stimuli that gave the best indicator of the USC.
Eric Kandel and Robert Hawkins
Scientists that discovered the idea of different learning circuits and their abilities to divide learning tasks into behavioral and cognitive. Complex circuits-cognitive learning, while simple circuis=behavioral learning.
Higher Cognitive Learning
Building mental images, assimilating concepts, pondering, relating, comparing, contrasting, studying
Problems with Punishment
Suppresses behavior, doesn't eliminate it/ Teaches what not to do, not what to do/ Can inhibit learning and creativity/ Must be applied every time, otherwise undesired response can become rewarding(beating the system, being a rebel)/Can have undesirable emotional consequences (anger and aggression, fear and anxiety, depression and anxiety, learned helplessness)/Models aggression and bad anger management/Undesirable behavior returns when threat of punishment is not present/ Can become abusive (with tolerance of punishee, with negative reinforcement to punishee, with positive reinforcement to punisher)/ Can cause inequality of punishment (racially, gender-based, socio-economically)
In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise (similar to John Watson's study with Little Albert). In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n):
True or False : Reinforcement always strengthens a response/ action
Suppose it appears likely that you are about to lose your job. If you react by talking with your boss about how to keep your job, which coping style have you used?
The founder of psychology in the United States was
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