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MICROECONOMICS FINAL EXAM PART 2
Terms in this set (100)
an economic activity that, from the perspective of society, results in too few or too many resources going to a specific economic activity once external benefits or costs are taken into account is called
a market failure
market failure occurs when
an unrestrained market economy leads to too few or too many resources going to a specific economic activity
when economies are sovereign
they have the freedom to decide what they wish to purchase
prevent the price system from attaining economic efficiency
explain what market failure is. how does market failure relate to the price system? how does market failure relate to the role of government
Market failure is a situation in which a market economy either allocates too few or too many resources to a specific economic activity. That is, it is a situation in which a market economy does not achieve economic efficiency. The price system achieves economic efficiency as long as there are not any market failures. But, when there are market failures, an unregulated price system does not achieve economic efficiency, and there is a potential role for government to intervene in some way to bring about an efficient situation.
a situation for which a benefit or cost associated with an economy activity spills over to third parties is called
an externality can best be defined as
a consequence of a transaction that spills over to affect third parties
all of the following illustrate how government can correct for positive externalities EXCEPT
charging effluent fees
which of the following leads to an underallocation of resources to a specific economic activity?
a result of a positive externality in the production of a good is that
the price system will under-allocate resources to the production of that good or service
suppose that the XYZ industry produces a product that results in negative external costs to society. this information suggests that
resources are over-allocated to the industry
when an external cost exists, firms tend to
overproduce the good
if production of an item results in negative external costs, then
the market price is below the socially preferred price that reflects the external costs
which of the following does NOT generate positive external benefits to society?
the haphazard disposal of industrial wastes
suppose that the market price of good X equals the firm's cost of producing that good, but it does not reflect any costs imposed on society. which of the following is FALSE?
an external benefit is associated with good X
when a good causes positive external benefits to accrue to third parties, an unfettered market will
under-allocate resources to the good causing the benefit
society is likely to over-allocate resources to produce goods that
generate negative externalities
which of the following often involves positive external benefits?
a negative externality is a situation in which
a cost is associated with an economic activity is borne by a third party
when a paper producer pollutes the air, economists argue that there is
an external cost
an external cost, such as the cost generated by pollution, is
a cost paid by a third party or by society at large
pollution is caused by a market failure, in an industry in which there is
an over-allocation of resources in production
a negative externality such as pollution can be corrected by
a tax on producers
an externality exists when
some of the benefits or costs associated with a good are borne by third parties
suppose that a per-unit subsidy is granted to each individual who consumes a product providing external benefits to society at large. each individuals demand curve will shift _________, and the market demand curve for the product will shift __________
to the right; to the right
the do-good company produces goods that provide benefits to society-at-large. if consumers of do-good's products fail to take external benefits into account,
the demand curve will be too far to the left
government can correct for negative externalities by
increasing taxes or regulation
if the production of a product results in significant external costs, an appropriate government policy might be to
tax the producer and thus shift the supply curve to the left
an effluent fee
gives the firm a right to pollute if it pays a tax on what it discharges
to correct for the underproduction of products with positive externalities, the government must
provide the incentives for the private sector to produce the good
assume the production of a good gives rise to external benefits. the government may increase efficiency by
subsidizing the production of the good
when the production of one good spills benefits over to third parties, the government should consider all of the following EXCEPT
taxing the production or consumption of the good
a government action that can help correct positive externalities is
a subsidy to consumers of the good that provides external benefits
a government subsidy is typically used
to encourage a positive externality
a subsidy is sometimes used by the government to correct the problems associated with
the economics functions of government differ from the political functions of government in that
the economic functions involve things that affect the way exchange is carried out while the political functions include policies that affect income redistribution
functions of government include which of the following?
both correcting for externalities and promotion competition
public goods are
neither exclusive nor rival
in the U.S. economy, which of the following is NOT a generally accepted economic function of government?
distributing consumer goods
the economic role of the legal system might best be described as
establishing the "rules of the game" and acting as a referee when disputes arise among market participants
which of the following is NOT an ECONOMIC function of government?
providing demerit goods
which of the following statements is TRUE?
transfer payments are money payments made by the government for which no goods or services are currently received
in the United States, the idea that the federal government should undertake actions to stabilize business activity
is a relatively new idea that developed in the years during and after the Great Depression
the legal system in the United States tends
to promote competition
the U.S. legal system mainly engages in activities that
involve defining and protecting property rights
federal antitrust laws in the United States are intended to
promote competition by prohibiting monopolies
to protect the competitive economic system by restricting the formation of monopolies, the government has passed and enforced
federal antitrust laws in the United States are enforced
by the department of justice and by the federal trade commission
which of the following does NOT describe the intended purpose of the antitrust laws of the United States?
to prohibit certain economic activities that promote trade
U.S. antitrust laws view monopolies as undesirable because
monopolies restrain trade and promote inefficiencies
the purpose of antitrust legislation is
to reduce the power of monopoly
a firm that has a great deal of control over the price of a good is said
to have monopoly power
which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of public goods?
public goods are subject to the principle of rival consumption
when an Australian citizen enjoys military protection in Australia without contributing to the cost of Australia's defense budget, then
this citizen is a free rider
which of the following is an example of the free-rider problem?
a neighbor who refuses to help pay for a street light that is intended to help reduce crime
public goods are
provided to additional users at no additional cost
the principle feature of private goods is that
consumption by one person reduces the quantity available to others
one characteristic of a public good is that it
can be consumed simultaneously by many individuals
which of the following would be classified as a private good?
public goods are unlikely to be provided by the private sector because
no one can be excluded from the consumption of the good
the free-rider problem is encountered when
someone benefits from the consumption of a public good without paying his or her full share
in the absence of government,
public goods are likely to be underprovided
the opportunity cost of providing a public good to an additional individual is
private goods are those goods
that can only be consumed by one individual at a time
which of the following goods is NOT subject to the free-rider problem?
a public transit system
the distinguishing characteristic of private goods is that
their use is exclusive to the people who purchase them
a fundamental aspect of public gods is that they
can be consumed jointly by many people simultaneously
which of the following is an example of a public good?
public goods are characterized by the free-rider problem because
no one can be excluded from the benefits of public goods once they are produced
a friend of yours receives a voucher for an apartment in a public housing project. this apartment represents
a private good
suppose that rapper Eminem decides to perform in Chicago's grand park. the concert promoters rightly believe that the only way the concert can be given in the park is if the concert is free. this conclusion is based on the assumption that the concert would be
nonexcludable in consumption
which of the following is best characterized as a public good?
public goods are essentially
nonrival in consumption
which event was most important in promoting the belief that the U.S. government should work to ensure economy-wide stability?
the great depression
what are the three goals of the employment act of 1946?
which law specifically mandated the federal government's responsibility for economy-wide stability?
the employment act of 1946
explain why economists consider it to be one of the economic functions of government to provide a legal system
A market economy relies heavily on contracts and property rights. Property rights must be defined and protected if people are going to make investments in resources, and if people are going to exchange assets. Contracts must also be enforced. By providing a legal system, the government can ensure that a market system will function better
how do public goods differ from private goods?
A private good is characterized by the principle of rival consumption, which means that one person's consumption of a good reduces the amount available for someone else. A public good is not characterized by the principle of rival consumption. Public goods can be used by more people at no additional cost. Further, once the good is produced, it is usually impossible, or at the very least difficult, to exclude anyone from consuming it.
suppose a valley periodically floods. a dam can be built in the river that would prevent the flooding. explain how flood control provided by building the dam fits the four characteristics of a public good
The dam would be indivisible since it must be a certain size in order to be effective. Once flood control is provided, new homes can be protected at no additional cost. Any one home's protection does not reduce the protection from flooding for any other home. Finally, it would be impossible to exclude someone from the benefits of the flood control. Hence, flood control is a public good.
by definition, a merit good
is a good that is deemed socially desirable
which of the following is an example of a demerit good?
under present U.S. law, cocaine is an example of
a demerit good
under present U.S. law, which one of the following is a demerit good?
a demerit good is a good which
the political process has deemed socially undesirable
a merit good is one that
the political process has determined socially desirable
a transfer payment is a payment
for which no services or goods are rendered
which of the following is a transfer payment?
both social security and unemployment benefits
an example of an in-kind transfer is
low-cost public housing
money payments made by governments to individuals for which no services or goods are concurrently rendered are known as
examples of transfer payments are
social security checks and unemployment insurance payments
which of the following does NOT involve transfers in kind?
salaries of government employees
how does the government carry out income redistribution?
Income redistribution can be carried out by a combination of progressive taxation and transfer payments. Transfer payments are money payments made by the government to people for which no goods or services are rendered. Transfers can also be "in-kind," that is, in the form of a good or service.
as a share of total national income, government spending generally has
increased over the last fifty years
social security and medicare are clear examples of
governmental intervention in the market
according to your text, which of the following represents the largest source of tax receipts for the federal government?
individual income taxes
the goal of medicare is to
subsidize medical expenses for the elderly
subsidies paid to the health care industry for medicare patients are paid by
public education is priced below market price largely as a result of
government subsidy programs
one of the most important characteristics of the price system is that
consumers are the ones who ultimately decide what is produced
when comparing market and collective (public sector) decision making, which statement is NOT true?
in both decision making sectors, majority rule is how things are done